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What is the Kinetic Molecular Theory of

What is the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter?

The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter is a concept that basically states that atoms and molecules possess an energy of motion (kinetic energy) that we perceive as temperature. In other words, atoms and molecules are constantly in motion , and we measure the energy of these movements as the temperature of that substance. This means if there is an increase in temperature, the atoms and molecules will gain more energy (kinetic energy) and move even faster.

particles in motion possess kinetic energy for solid particles in motion possess kinetic energy for liquid particles in motion possess kinetic energy for gas
This kinetic-molecular theory states (postulates) that:

  • All matter (solid, liquid, and gas) is made up of tiny particles called atoms, or atoms that are joined to form molecules.
  • These particles are in constant motion.
  • Molecular motion is random.
  • Particles in motion possess kinetic energy.
  • Their motion increase as they gain energy.
  • There is an exchange (transfer) of energy between particles (atoms and molecules) during a collision between them.
  • Particles (molecules) in gases do not exert large forces on each other, unless they are in collision with each other.
  • Collisions between these particles are perfectly elastic.
  • Molecular motion is greatest in gases, less in liquids, and least in solids.
  • Solids retain a fixed volume and shape – particles are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern.
  • Liquids assume the shape of the container which it occupies but maintain their volume – particles close together with no regular arrangement.
  • Gases assumes the shape and volume of its container and will expand to fill a container of any size – particles are very well far apart with no regular arrangement.

The kinetic molecular theory is very useful in explaining or describing the forces between molecules and the energy that they possess, as well as, the effects of thermal energy, temperature and pressure on matter.

Filed under: General Knowledge, Scientific facts,

Can you hear sound in space

Can you hear sound in space?

Sound can only travel through a medium (solid, liquid or gas) by making their molecules vibrate. This therefore means that sound need any one of the three states of matter (solid, liquid or gas) in order to travel. Space being nearly a perfect vacuum, means sound waves can not travel from its vibrating source through the vacuum to another point in space or to the ear of an individual. In order for one to hear sound it must travel through gas particles which space has very few per cubic centimeter. This is very much less than that in the Earth’s atmosphere. So, can you hear sound in space ? or does sound travel in space? The answer is no, space is silent.

So do not be fooled by space movies where you can hear the loud explosion in space of a space ship or planet, spaceships engine giving off sounds or the firing of guns. This myth of sound in traveling in space, is spread mostly by Hollywood space movies and also by TV. This is only added for special effects as sound effects and music greatly enhance the psychological effects that movies have on an audience thus, making the movie a lot more interesting and entertaining.

Filed under: General Knowledge, Scientific facts, , , ,

Indian Institute of Technology – Joint Admission Test for M.Sc. – 2010 (JAM – 2010)

Joint Admission Test for M.Sc. – 2010

Date of Examination: 02-05-2010 (Sunday)

JAM 2010 will be held on 2nd May, 2010 for Admission to M.Sc. (2 year), Joint M.Sc.-Ph.D., M.Sc.-Ph.D. Dual degree, MCA and M.Tech. in Geophysical / Geological Technology programmes at the seven IITs (Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee) for the academic year 2010-11.

Application forms/online registration will be available from 22nd December, 2009. For details, visit http://jam.iitm.ac.in or refer to the Employment News of 19th December, 2009 or University news dated 7th December, 2009.

Important dates

Commencement of sale of Information Brochure & Application Forms, and Online application form submission: 22nd December, 2009 (Tuesday)

Last date for the requests for Information Brochures & Application Forms by post to reach JAM office of IIT Madras: 18th January, 2010 (Monday)

Last date for issue of Information Brochures & Application Forms at Bank counters: 22nd January, 2010 (Friday)

Indian Institute of Technology

Organising Chairman, JAM – 2010, IIT Madras, Chennai – 600 036

Website: http://jam.iitm.ac.in

Filed under: Forthcomming Exam, ,

Tonnes of crude oil are extracted every day in many oil rigs around the world. What happens to the void left as a result of

Oil extraction

Tonnes of crude oil are extracted every day in many oil rigs around the world. What happens to the void left as a result of this?



There is no void on extraction of oil from the reservoir. Let us see what happens. Oil and natural gas are generated from marine organisms after their death in the aqueous medium. The most important condition is that they should be buried as early as possible, failing which dissolved oxygen in the sea water decomposes the organisms and only their skeleton will be deposited.

Therefore, the ideal situation for oil formation is shallow and calm sea preferably a bay or gulf or a lake. Substantial settlements, thickness in terms of kilometres, of sediments along with organisms beneath the earth, undergo a limited thermal alteration due to geothermal energy or as a result of different metamorphic processes.

This results in generation of oil and natural gas from the organisms. As the oil is lighter than water, it moves upwards and water replaces the space. It keeps on moving until it comes to the surface of the water or earth.

But there are possibilities that the moving oil gets trapped in impervious rocks such as clay layers, igneous rocks in the form of sill or lava. Geologically most of the sediments are soft, thus undergoing folding and faulting. The folded domes covered by the impervious rocks trap the oil and natural gas.

As a lighter material, oil and gas will push the water down and occupy uppermost region(s) on every addition of their accumulation within the trap. Depending upon the depth of this formation, the surrounding water exerts pressure on the oil and gas.

Therefore, when oil and gas are extracted from these formations by borewells, they automatically come out to the surface. If the pressure of water is not sufficient to push the oil above, then water is pumped down to increase the pressure in the domes in which oil is trapped.

Unlike mining – excavation of minerals and rocks from mines – which results in generation of void in the earth surface or underground, oil and natural gas extraction does not cause any void space in the earth

Filed under: Scientific facts,

Why is it that most of the batteries show they can be recharged only a 1,000 times?

Battery recharging

Why is it that most of the batteries show they can be recharged only a 1,000 times?


Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh

It is not true that any rechargeable battery can be recharged only a 1,000 times. Generally the number of recharge cycles is not an exact value.

It depends on many factors such as battery chemistry, charging as well as discharging processes, load borne by the battery etc. In rechargeable batteries, due to the chemical reactions, the chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

Unlike ordinary chemical reactions, in rechargeable batteries, the chemical reactions take place in a reversible manner.

This means the chemical reaction proceeds in either direction — forward reaction and backward reaction.

In the forward direction chemical energy is converted into electrical energy and so the battery can deliver the voltage. This is the discharging process. Once all the reactant chemicals are converted into product chemicals, then the forward reaction comes to an end and so the battery voltage drops.

So, if we apply an external voltage to the battery (slightly greater than the battery voltage), then the reaction direction is reversed. This is the charging process (backward reaction). So the battery acquires voltage for further discharge. Ideally a single battery cycle is referred to as a complete forward (discharging) as well as reverse (charging) reaction.

And in almost all the rechargeable batteries these reversible reactions, cannot takes place with 100 percent efficiency. This means all the formed product chemicals cannot be completely converted into reactant chemicals in each cycle.

And it depends on many aspects like, memory effect (charging before complete discharging), higher charging and/or discharging rate, other irreversible chemical reactions, load factors, over charging etc.

Thus the recharging process cannot produce the active reactant chemicals completely and so their amount lowers gradually in every cycle. Or in other words, a battery cannot be recharged with 100 per cent efficiency and its life time gradually decreases in each cycle.

So, the number of rechargeable cycles varies for different batteries and it is not an exact value.

For example in lead acid batteries, the maximum charge/discharge efficiency is about 80-90 per cent and so it can have a life cycle of approximately 800-1000 times. In nickel-cadmium alkaline batteries, the life cycle is approximately 1,000 to 1,200 times.


Assistant Professor

Department of Chemistry,

Raju’s College


Filed under: Scientific facts,



MAIN ATTRACTIONS OF THE EMPLOYMENT NEWS ISSUE DATED 05.12.09. Employment News issue dated 05.12.09 contains several attractive advertisements from some of the leading PSU/GOVT. Departments as below:-

  1. Delhi Police invites applications for recruitment of Sub-Inspector (Executive) – Male and Sub-Inspector (Executive)-Women.
  2. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited requires Junior Accounts Officer (JAOs).
  3. Union Public Service Commission declares the result of Combined Defence Services Examination (I)-2009.
  4. C-DAC invites applications for admission to PG Diploma Programmes in various disciplines.
  5. National Cooperative Development Corporation invites applications for the posts of Dy. Director, Asst. Director, Programme Officer etc.
  6. South Eastern Railway invites applications for recruitment against Scouts & Guides Quota-2009 in Group ‘C’ category.
  7. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Jhansi invites applications for the posts of Artisans.
  8. Staff Selection Commission, Madhya Pradesh Region and Karnataka-Kerala Region invite applications for various posts.
  9. Indian Navy invites applications from unmarried Male Candidates for enrolment as Sailors for Direct Entry Diploma Holders (3 yrs) for 2/2010 Batch and Artificer Apprentice (AA) – 128 Batch.
  10. North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health & Medical Science, Shillong needs Registrar, Chief Security Officer, System Analyst etc.
  11. Indian Bank declares the results for the posts of Clerical Staff.
  12. Office of the District & Sessions Judge, Tis Hazari Courts, Delhi invites applications for 412 Lower Division Clerks.
  13. National Fisheries Development Board, Hyderabad invites applications for the posts of Senior Executive (Technical).
  14. Staff Selection Commission declares the results of Data Entry Operator Examination, 2009 and Central Police Organisation Examination, 2008.
  15. N.M.D.C. Limited invites applications for the posts of Jr. Officer, Jr. Assistant etc.
  16. National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata invites applications for the posts of Dy. Director, Bio-Chemist, Pathologist etc.
  17. National Brain Research Centre needs Chief Administrative Officer, Computer Operator, Principal Scientific Officer etc.
  18. NSIC Technical Services Centre, Chennai offers admission to various technical courses.

Employment News issue dated 05.12.2009 contains advertisement for job vacancies of more than 107 Govt. Departments.

Book your copy of Employment News immediately with your local Book Seller.

Filed under: Employments News: Updates,




Employment News issue dated 28.11.09 contains several attractive advertisements from some of the leading PSU/GOVT. Departments as below:

  • Union Public Service Commission invites applications for various posts.
  • Baroda Rajasthan Gramin Bank requires Officer Scale-I and Clerk-cum-Cashier.
  • Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited invites applications for Station Controller/Train Operator (SC/TO).
  • Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force invites applications for the post of Head Constables.
  • Staff Selection Commission (Southern Region) invites applications for the posts of Store Keeper, Technical Assistant and Jr. Zoological Assistant.
  • State Bank of India declares the result of written examination held on 13.09.2009 for the post of Management Executive.
  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad requires Research Scientists.
  • University Grants Commission notifies Post Doctoral Fellowship for SC/ST candidates for the year 2009-2010.
  • The Shipping Corporation of India Ltd. requires Young Professionals.
  • Power Grid Corporation of India Limited requires Asst. Engineers, Engineers, Sr. Engineers, Dy. Managers etc.
  • Union Public Service Commission declares the final result of National Defence Academy and Naval Academy Examination (I), 2009.
  • ITI Limited, Bangalore invites applications for the posts of Software/Hardware Engineers, Mathematicians, HR Professionals etc.
  • IIM Lucknow needs Librarian, Sr. Administrative Officer and Pvt. Secretary to Director.
  • Shri Ram College of Commerce offers admission to Two Year Full time Post Graduate Programme in Global Business Operations.
  • Railway Recruitment Board, Bhopal declares the results of written examination held on 22.02.2009.
  • National Institute of Immunology, Delhi invites applications for the posts of Staff Scientists, Asst. Engineer and Jr. Engineer etc.
  • Indian Agricultural Research Institute needs Security

    Supervisor, LDCs etc.

  • Central Employment Exchange invites applications for the posts of Jr. Technical Assistant, Sr. Technical Assistants etc.

Employment News issue dated 28.11.2009 contains advertisement for job vacancies of more than 79 Govt. Departments.

Filed under: Employments News: Updates,

Young World Quiz (December 01, 2009)

Young World Quiz (December 01, 2009)



New from Google : What’s its name?


1. ‘Universal Access and Human Rights’ is the 2009 theme for which ‘Day’ first observed on this date (December 1) in 1988?

2. Name the schoolboy aided by Doraemon in the popular manga series.

3. Which is the westernmost country of mainland Europe?

4. Name Google’s mobile operating system with a name that is used for a robot designed to look and act like a human.

5. ‘Wookieepedia’ is a wiki for which cult science fiction franchise?

Farmland : Cultivating Ananas comosus. Photo : M. Srinath


6. Chaim Weizmann was the first President of…?

7. In Beatrix Potter stories, what sort of an animal was Mr. Tod?

8. Name the half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu, born of a maid-servant and Vyasa.

9. Who wrote a famous opera based on the exploits of the Arthurian knight Sir Percival?

10. By what name was the legendary magician and escape artist Ehrich Weiss better known?

Doraemon : Photo : AFP


11. Which ruthless child prodigy’s family motto is ‘ Aurum Potestas est’ meaning ‘Gold is Power’?

12. What is the more common name for the skillet used in kitchens?

13. In which city do Top Cat and his buddies hang out?

14. What common fruit does one get from the Ananas comosus plant?

15. Which large country takes its name from the Latin word for ‘southern’?


Answer to Young World Quiz (December 01, 2009)


1. World Aids Day
2. Nobita Nobi
3. Portugal
4. Android
5. Star Wars
6. Israel
7. Fox
8. Vidura
9. Richard Wagner
10. Harry Houdini
11. Artemis Fowl
12. Frying pan
13. New York City
14. Pineapple
15. Australia.

Filed under: Young Word Quiz With Answer, ,

Punjab to recruit 11,000 teachers in one year

Chandigarh: The Punjab government would recruit 11,000 teachers in state-run schools within the next one year, Deputy Chief Minister Sukhbir Singh Badal said here on Monday.

“The previous government failed to recruit even a single teacher in their five-year rule. There were 25,000 vacancies of teachers in the state’s 14,000 government schools. We recruited over 15,000 teachers last year and 11,000 vacancies will be filled within next one year,” Badal said.

“After the recruitment of teachers, all promotional vacancies of principals and head masters would also be filled,” he said.

Badal said the government’s experiment to train youth as private security guards has been a big success.

Punjab police trained guards are in great demand all across the world. Every trained person here is getting at least four offer letters from multinational companies. Punjab is fully geared to exploit the international demand of 10 lakh (1 million) trained private security guards,” Badal said. IANS

Filed under: Educational News,

PM’s daughter Upinder wins Infosys prize for social sciences

Bangalore: Upinder Singh, 50, history professor at Delhi University who is also the second daughter of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, is the joint winner of the inaugural Infosys Prize for social sciences.

“Yes! Upinder Singh is the prime minister’s daughter. But we have not highlighted her parentage while announcing the prizes, as she has been chosen by the jury for the award on her merit and credentials,” a senior Infosys official told the sources late on Monday.

The jury for social sciences, headed by Nobel laureate Amartya Sen, chose Upinder for the Rs.5-million (Rs.50 lakh) prize for her contributions as an outstanding historian of ancient and early medieval India. The prize has been instituted by the Infosys Science Foundation.

Abijit Vinayak Banerjee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is the other winner of the prize in the discipline for his contributions to the economic theory of development and his pioneering work in the empirical evaluation of public policy.

“The prize will be equally shared by Upinder and Banerjee and they will get Rs.2.5 million (Rs.25 lakh) each,” the Infosys official added.

The prime minister will present the prize to Upinder and Banerjee at an award ceremony on January 4, 2010 in New Delhi along with a citation and a medallion.

According to the citation by the jury, Upinder has been recognised for the depth and breadth of her scholarly research, which are matched by a rare ability to communicate her findings to a broad audience of students and intellectually curious non-specialists.

“Upinder has been a pioneer in supplementing literary sources with an impressive array of archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic evidence in brilliantly reconstructing early Indian history. The vast chronological span of her scholarship stretches across millennia from the Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages to 1200 CE,” the citation said.

Noting that Upinder was able to offer an overarching and subtle interpretation of Indian history and culture, the jury said as an innovative scholar who enables her readers to re-envision the idea of India, she was an ideal recipient of the prize in history.

A history graduate from St. Stephen’s College in Delhi, Upinder went on to do M.A. and M.Phil in history from Delhi University. She obtained Ph.D at McGill University at Montreal in Canada, with a thesis on “Kings, Brahmanas and Temples in Orissa: an epigraphic study.”

The Infosys Foundation has been set up early this year with a corpus of Rs.450 million (Rs.45 crore), including Rs.210 million (Rs.21 crore) jointly contributed by Infosys’ executive board members and an annual grant by the company to promote world class research in natural andsocial sciences in the Indian sub-continent. IANS

Filed under: Awards,

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Bachhon ko Nishulk Aur Anivaarya Shiksha Ka adhikaar Adhiniyam 2009, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1823-1825 ; E-Kachara Prabandhan: Ek Chunauti Aur Upaye, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1832-1834; Vitamin Truths & lies,Reader Digest,May2010,P.52-56; Surface Area and Volume, Education Trend,May210,P.65 ; Metals and Non Metals, Education Trend,May210,P.77; The rise of Nationalism in Europe, Education Trend,May210,P.91; Linear Equations in two variables, Education Today,May2010,P.5-15,Federalism, Sectors of Indian Economy and Water Resources Education Today,May2010,P.16-29 ; Acids, Bases and Salts, Education Today,May2010,P.30; Prehistoric Creatures,Tell Me Why,May2010; Disappearing Herbs,Out Look,May24,2010,P.56

Periodicals Arrival in the Library