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Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta Sindhu?

Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta sindhu ?

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.
Scholars are not of same opinion on the names and identity of the seven rivers of Sapta sindhu. Most of the scholars agree that the heartland of Rigvedic Aryans was modern Afghanistan, Punjab (Pakistan & India), Haryana & Rajasthan. Further, Kubha River (Kabul), Suwastu (Swat) Kramu (Kurram) & Gomati (Gomal) Rivers have also got place in texts. The Ganga & Yamuna which were mentioned in later Vedic texts indicated the eastern boundary of the Sapta Saindhava Region.
There is a verse in Nadistuti sukta of Rigveda , hymn of praise of rivers which mentions the following 10 rivers: Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Marudvrdha , Vitasta , Arjikiya , Susoma. The Shutudri was Sutlej, Parushni was Ravi, Asikni was Chenab and Vitasta was Jhelum.
The majority of the scholars believe that Sindhu & Saraswati (located in Rajasthan) were the most popular and sacred rivers of that era. Some scholars are of the opinion that the hymns in praise of the Saraswati are probably some of the oldest, composed more than 8000 years ago. The 5 rivers Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Vitasta, Vipas all were tributaries of Sindhu River. Together with Sarasawti and Sindhu, these 5 rivers constituted the Sapta Sindhu.
However saraswati has been mentioned as saptasvasa, which means she with 7 sisters. So, This further leads to a group of 8 Rivers.

With Which Countries India Has a Free Trade Agreement ?

Free Trade Agreement negotiations with ASEAN started in 2002, and came into force from January 1, 2009.

India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement:
India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of India and the President of Sri Lanka on 28 December 1999.

Thailand & Malaysia:
India has a separate Free Trade Agreement with Thailand and Malaysia other than the India-ASEAN FTA.

CEPA with Singapore and South Korea:
India and South Korea had signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement in August 2009. This was the second CEPA signed by India, the other being with Singapore. This was also India’s first bilateral trade agreement with an OECD country.

Apart from the above, India has PTA (Preferential Trade Agreements with) Chile, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal & MERCOSUR
The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) came into force from 1st January, 2006. India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are categorized as Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal are categorized as Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS). Afghanistan which became the eighth member of SAARC during the 14th SAARC Summit held on 3-4 April 2007 in New Delhi is due to become a party to the SAFTA Agreement as an LDC member.

Filed under: General Knowledge, Uncategorized, , ,

What is a court of Record?

What is a court of Record?
A court of record is a court whose acts and proceedings are enrolled for perpetual memory and testimony. These records are used with a high authority and their truth cannot be questioned. In Indian constitution article 129 make the Supreme Court the ‘court of record”. Article 129 says: Supreme Court to be a court of record.-The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.

Article 215 empowers the High Courts of te states to be courts of record.

Filed under: General Knowledge,

Forbes’ Top Philanthropists from India are all Women

In the list of Forbes’, containing Asia Pacific’s Philanthropists, four Indians have been included and all these four Indian Philanthropists are women. Biotech major Biocon’s CEO Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw and Anu Aga of Thermex got the leading place in the list.The two others making it to the business magazine’s `48 Heroes of Philanthropy’ list are Kiran Nadar, collector of contemporary Indian arts

Filed under: General Knowledge,

Focus on increasing college enrolment – Sibal

Human Resource Development (HRD) Minister Kapil Sibal recently called for substantially increasing the number of students joining colleges for higher studies after completing their schooling.

“In India, nearly 220 million students go to schools and around 14 million go to colleges. Our Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), that is the percentage of students going from schools to colleges, is only 12.4 percent,” said Sibal here at a seminar on education reforms.

He added, “This is a matter of worry as in other developed countries GER is not less than 40 to 50 percent. If we talk about the research sector, then in Europe for every million people not less than 6,000 go for research, in the US this number is 4,700 whereas in India it is just 156.”

He said that we have to make sure that by 2020 India’s GER increases to 30 percent.

“At presently 480 universities and 22,000 colleges are fulfilling the need of 12.4 percent GER. If we have to reach a mark of 30 percent GER, in the next 10 years we need around 700 to 1,000 universities and nearly 45,000 colleges,” he said.

He said the definition of wealth has changed globally and it now refers to ideas, innovation and creativity that are intellectual assets.

Sibal said changes are needed in school education as well.

He said that no government can run schools efficiently therefore there should be a transfer of ownership to community from the government.

“Under the Right to Education Act, we have impressed on the need of involving 75 percent people from the locality, out of which 50 percent should be women, in a school management committee. Ownership should be gradually transferred to the community and people, especially mothers ofstudents, should decide a school’s operations,” said Sibal.

Talking on exam reforms, he said, “We need to move away from the examination system to creativity. There should be no exams or boards. We require a constant evaluation not for those skills that a student does not have but for those that he actually possesses.” IANS

Filed under: Educational News, Uncategorized, ,

What are bowling balls made of?

The earliest bowling balls were made of stone. Later, the balls were made of hard wood, such as oak. In the early 1900s, hard rubber bowling balls were introduced, solving some of the chipping, cracking and warping problems that were prevalent in the wooden spheres. Today’s balls are made up of a solid, nonmetallic core and a coverstock, or shell. The coverstock is usually composed of a plastic material — either polyester, polyurethane or resin urethane. The weight and balance of the ball and the positioning of the finger holes can greatly affect the bowler’s performance; the first year that reactive resin was used in the bowling balls, the number of perfect games played increased by nearly twenty percent. In 2003, when the Professional Bowlers Association named its top fifty players, Earl Anthony, born on this date in 1938, rolled in at number one. The left-handed bowler was a six-time PBA player of the year.

Filed under: Scientific facts,

Indian Languages-Principal Languages of India

Principal Languages of India

India has 22 languages which have been given the grade of National Languages.

Assamese :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Assam.

Bengali :

  • It is one of the leading Indo-Aryan language and is die official language of W. Bengal-Gujarati.
  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Gujarat.

Hindi :

  • The largest spoken Indo-Aryan language.
  • It is the official language of the Government of India.
  • Various dialects of Hindi are Khariboli, Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri.
  • In 6 States and UTs, Hindi is the official language.

Kannada :

  • It belongs to the Dravidian family & is the official langauge of Karnataka.

Kashmiri :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language.
  • It is often mistaken as the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.

Konkani :

  • It is the official language of Goa and is spoken by thousands of Konkanis in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Malayalam :

  • Belong to the Dravidian family and is the official language of Kerala.

Manipuri :

  • It is the official language of Manipur.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Marathi :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Maharashtra.

Nepali :

  • It is spoken in parts of UP, Bihar, W. Bengal, Assam, etc.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Oriya :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Orissa.

Punjabi :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Punjab.

Sanskrit :

  • It is one of the earliest languages of the world.
  • Early Sanksrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit and covers the period between 2000 and 500 BC.

Sindhi :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language.
  • It was added in 1967 by 21st Amendment.

Tamil :

  • It is the oldest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Tamil Nadu.

Telegu :

  • It is numerically the biggest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.

Urdu :

  • It is die offiical langauge of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Modern Urdu developed due to the efforts of Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898).

Dogri :

  • It is generally spoken in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu.
  • It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit and Pahari Dogri languages.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Maithili :

  • It is chiefly spoken in the Maithilianchal region of Bihar.
  • It is the second State language of Bihar.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Santhali :

  • It is chiefly spoken in the area of Chhotanagpur Plateau in Jharkhand and Bihar.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Bodo :

  • It is chiefly spoken in Assam and its adjoining North-East States.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Comparative Strengths of Scheduled Languages (Census 2001) :

Mother Tongue % of Total Population
Hindi 41.03
Nepali 0.28
Bengali 8.11
Assamese 1.28
Urdu 5.01
Punjabi 2.83
Telugu 7.19
Kashmiri 0.54
Tamil 5.91
Maithili 1.18
Santhali 0.63
Konkani 0.24
Marathi 6.99
Gujarati 4.48
Kannada 3.69
Malayalam 3.21
Oriya 3.20
Sindhi 0.25
Manipuri 0.14
Sanskrit Negligible
Dogri 0.22
Bodo 0.13

Filed under: General Knowledge, ,

General Knowledge Quiz Series this week

1.  In which country did the ‘sauna’ originate?

2.  On which day and which year did America declare itself an independent country?

3. Which is lighter, gold or plastic?

4. What should you say in English if someone sneezes?.

5. How many cents are there in a Australian dollar?

6.  Who wrote ‘Animal Farm’?

7. Name five methods of transport?.

8. Name ten countries where English is an official language.

9 Name ten parts of the body lower than the neck.

10. Which explorer discovered the sea-route to India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope?

11. What is the currency of Greece?

12.Which country is popularly called ‘The Land of the Maple Leaf’?

13. In Britain who would you give a tip to?

14. Name three festivals celebrated in English-speaking countries?

15. “A good husband should be deaf and a good wife blind”. What are these sayings called?

16.What do English people say before a meal?

17. Which U.S President was assassinated in 1865?

18. Which is longer the Danube or Volga river?

19. When did England last win the football world cup?

20 Which planet is named after the Roman god of war?


1 – Finland

2 – 4th July 1776

3 – Plastic

4 – Bless you.

5 – 100

6 – George Orwell

7 – Train, car, coach, bus, tram, ship, boat, motorcycle etc.

8 – England, Ireland, USA, Canada, India, Kenya, Singapore, Barbados, South Africa, Pakistan etc.

9 – Chest, leg, arm, shoulder, foot, knee, fingers, toes, thigh, shin, ankle etc.

10 – Vasco de Gama

11 – Drachma

12 – Canada

13 -Waiter/Waitress, taxi driver, hairdresser

14 – Christmas, Easter, St. Valentines day, New Years day, Thanksgiving day etc.

15 – Proverbs

16 – Nothing!

17 – Abraham Lincoln

18 – Volga

19 – 1966

20 – Mars

Filed under: General Knowledge, General Knowledge Quiz Series this week,

Burj Khalifa-The Tallest Building in the World

The world’s tallest animal is a giraffe and the world’s known tallest man is Robert Pershing Wadlow. The giraffe is 5.49m (18 ft.), the man is 2.55m (8ft. 11.1 in.).

The world’s tallest woman is Sandy Allen. She is 2.35m (7 ft. 7 in.).

The giant who fought David in the Bible was 2.97m (9ft. 9in.) tall.

The oldest man to reach the Everest (8848 m), the world’s highest peak is a venezuelan. He is Ramón Blanco and he did it in september 1993, he was 60 years old.

tallest building in the world

World’s Tallest Tower

Burj Khalifa — The Tallest Building in the World

hold the title of the tallest buildings in the world.

Empire State Bldg. The height of The Empire State Building in New York : 1,250 feet (381 m)
Eiffel Tower, Paris : 984 feet (300 m)
Statue of Liberty, New York : 310 feet (92 m)



World’s Tallest Building: Who Holds The Title?
The Petronas-Sears Controversy

Officially, the World’s Tallest Buildings are the Petronas Towers in
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1483 feet / 452m) — but put Petronas side by side with the former title holder, Sears Tower, and look again. The casual observer would say Sears Tower is tops, and by quite a wide margin!

The highest occupiable floor of Sears is more then 200 feet higher than the top floor in Petronas and its antennas go even higher. So why are the Petronas Towers considered the World’s Tallest Buildings?

Because, in the tradition and lore of tall building, spires count, antennas don’t.

Spires are architectural features and they have been traditionally counted in a building’s height, a precedent that dates to the Chrysler Building.  Antennas are not normally considered architectural features.

So…based on the long and storied tradition of tall buildings, the winner by decision is the Petronas Towers.

Mt Everest. Mountain heights…
Mount Everest : 29,028 feet (8,853 m)
Aconcagua (South America) : 22,834 feet (6,960 m)
McKinley / Denali (North America) : 20,320 feet ( m)
Kilimanjaro, Africa : 19,340 feet (5,894m)
Elbrus, Southern Europe : 18,510 feet (5,642 m)

Filed under: General Knowledge, , ,

Economic,Commercial,Trade,Banking Terms

ARBITRATION Referring dispute to disinterested party called arbitrator for decision, which will be binding.
ANNUITY Payment of a fixed amount periodically for a limited time. It is an investment on which the owner receives not only interest on his money but also return of his capital.
BALANCE OF TRADE The difference between the value of imports and exports. It is favourable when the value of exported goods exceeds the value of imported goods. If it is reverse balance is unfavourable.
BALANCE SHEET Statements of accounts, generally os a business house prepared at the end of a year, showing debits and credits under broad heads, in order to find out the profit and loss positions in the outgoing year.
BARTER Exchange of commodity with other commodities without the interface of any form of currency.
BOND Document by which a government, a company or a person agrees to pay a sum of money in a certain time.
BUDGET Annual estimate of expenditure and revenue of a country or a subordinate authority like a corporation.
BILL OF EXCHANGE Written order by a drawer to pay sum on given date ot named payee.
BUYER’S MARKET An economic phenomenon where there are more goods in market than demanded and so the buyers can dictate the prices of goods.
CLEARING HOUSE Place where officials of the banks meet daily to exchange cheques drawn on the respective banks and settle the account by the payment of balances only.
COOPERATIVE FARMING Joint farming wherein farmers pool their land, capital and resources and divide the produce at the end of the harvest in proportion to their land put in the pool. The farmers retain their proprietary rights.
CEILING ON LAND AND HOLDING Imposition of a maximum limit of the land which an individual should have. Its purpose is rational distribution of land.
DEATH DUTY (ESTATE DUTY) A sort of tax imposed on the property inherited at death of its previous owner.
DEVALUATION Government’s step to reduce the value of its own currency relatively to a foreign currency. It aims to increase exports and reduce imports.
DEFLATION A monetary state characterised by decrease in the supply of money and bank deposits and falling profits, wages, incomes and employment accompanied by unemployment and falling prices.
DEMONETISATION The governmental measure of depriving metallic coins or paper currency od specified denominations of its status money. It is meant to unearth the hidden money which is unaccounted for purpose of income tax assessment.
EXCISE DUTY Duty levied on goods manufactured within the country.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE Transfer of money of one country to another.
INFLATION Increase in the quality of money in circulation without any corresponding increase in goods; so, it leads to rising prices spiral.
LAISSEZ FAIRE An individualistic theory advocating private initiative in trade and non-interference by State in commercial or business ventures.
LOCKOUT Closure of a factory by owners to force the workers to accept the imposed terms.
MALTHUSIAN THEORY OF POPULATION It states that the food supply increase in arithmetical progression while population increase by geometrical progression resulting in over-population.
OCTROI Tax imposed on articles coming inside a city.
PUBLIC SECTOR Applies to State enterprises or undertaking.
RECESSION An economic phenomenon characterised by excessive production, less demand, tight money market.
SOFT CURRENCY Currency of a country with which we have favourable balance of trade.
STERLING AREA Group of countries of Commonwealth (except Canada) keeping their reserves in sterling and not gold or dollars.
TARIFFS Measures undertaking by one country to protect industry against trade competition from outside.

Filed under: Abbreviations To Know, , , ,

The 2010 Pulitzer Prizes -Award Winners

The 2010 Pulitzer prizes were awarded on April 12, 2010. The Washington Post has won four awards while The New York Times has won 3. For the first time this award has been given to ProPublica, an online source.
Following are the winners of the Pulitzer prizes 2010:

  • Journalism
  • Public Service – Bristol (Va.) Herald Courier
  • Breaking News Reporting – The Seattle Times Staff
  • Investigative Reporting – Barbara Laker and Wendy Ruderman of the Philadelphia Daily News and Sheri Fink of ProPublica, in collaboration with The New York Times Magazine
  • Explanatory Reporting – Michael Moss and members of The New York Times Staff
  • Local Reporting – Raquel Rutledge of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
  • National Reporting – Matt Richtel and members of The New York Times Staff
  • International Reporting – Anthony Shadid of The Washington Post
  • Feature Writing – Gene Weingarten of The Washington Post
  • Commentary – Kathleen Parker of The Washington Post
  • Criticism – Sarah Kaufman of The Washington Post
  • Editorial Writing – Tod Robberson, Colleen McCain Nelson and William McKenzie of The Dallas Morning News
  • Editorial Cartooning – Mark Fiore, self syndicated, appearing on SFGate.com
  • Breaking News Photography – Mary Chind of The Des Moines Register
  • Feature Photography – Craig F. Walker of The Denver Post
  • Letters, Drama and Music
  • Fiction – Tinkers by Paul Harding (Bellevue Literary Press)
  • Drama – Next to Normal, music by Tom Kitt, book and lyrics by Brian Yorkey
  • History – Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World by Liaquat Ahamed (The Penguin Press)
  • Biography – The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt by T.J. Stiles (Alfred A. Knopf)
  • Poetry – Versed by Rae Armantrout (Wesleyan University Press)
  • General Nonfiction – The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David E. Hoffman (Doubleday)
  • Music – Violin Concerto by Jennifer Higdon (Lawdon Press)
  • Special Citations
  • Hank Williams – press release on the Special Citation awarded to Hank Williams

Filed under: Awards, General Knowledge, ,

Latest General Knowledge

What Was Dikie Bird Plan?

The cabinet Mission plan of 1946 had recommended undivided India and turned down the Muslim league’s demand for a separate Pakistan. Muslim League had rejected this plan and refused to participate in the Interim Government. It celebrated 16th August 1946 as “Direct Action Day” which led to Hindu Muslim Riots. However when , the Interim government was formed by Jawahar Lal Nehru , Muslim league nominated 5 members to strengthen its position in the administration.
In February 1947, the British government made a decision to leave India by June 1948. On March 27, 1947 Muslim League observed Pakistan Day, which resulted in riots, massacre and atrocities. The Interim government failed in controlling the riots, and later uselessness of opposition of demand for a separate Pakistan by the Muslim league was realized by the leaders of the Interim Government Including Nehru.
Lord Mountbatten came to India in February 1947. Mr. VP Menon, an ICS Officer who later drafted proposal for Partition of India , provided him considerable help in analyzing the current situation.
Before he presented the June Plan, Mountbatten prepared a “Dickie Bird Plan” for India’s independence. The main proposal of this plan was to that provinces should become first independent successor states rather than a Indian Union or the two dominions of India & Pakistan.
As per this plan all the provinces viz. Madras, Bombay, United Provinces of Bengal, Punjab & North West Frontier etc. were proposed to be declared Independent. The states later would decide whether to join constituent assembly or not.
This plan was not discussed in details with leaders of India and Mountbatten discussed just informally. He gave the plan a final touch and sent to London. Later when he moved to Shimla, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru joined him as a guest . Here the details of the plan were put by Mountbatten before Nehru. Nehru rejected the plan right away and told him that this plan would invite Balkanization of India and would provoke conflict and violence.
Consequently, Mountbatten cabled to England that this plan was cancelled.

What  Numerically applies to the year 2010 that will not recur until 2050?

What numerically applies to the year 2010 that will not recur until 2050?
In Roman numerals 2010 is expressed as MMX , 2050 as MML. All the years coming in between will be denoted by more than 3 Roman numerals.
2011 to 2020 = MMXI to MMXX
2021 to 2030= MMXXI to MMXXX
2030 to 2040=MMXXXI to MMXL
2041 to 2050 = MMXLI to MMXLIX
2050 =MML

Who is a Comptroller & Auditor general Of India?

Article 148 of the constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller & Auditor General of India. He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Departments. Generally a person with long administrative experience and knowledge of accounts is appointed as Comptroller & auditor General by the President of India. He / she hold the office for 6 years or till 65 years of age. President can remove CAG from office on grounds of proved misbehavior and incapacity, however removal order are issued by the president on recommendation of two houses of parliament. Salary of the Comptroller & Auditor General of India is drawn from Consolidated Fund of India.

The main accounting functions of CAG prior to 1976 were maintenance of state and central government accounts, making their annual summary. CAG was relived from accounting functions in 1976 and the main duty now is auditing functions only.

The current CAG is Vinod Rai, a 1972 batch Kerala cadre officer of IAS since 2008.

Who is the only Person in film history to have appeared in two films that won 11 Oscars ?

British Actor Bernard Hill who played as Captain Edward John Smith in Titanic is the only actor in the history to have appeared in 2 films out of 3 films which were awarded 11 Oscars. The 3 films are Ben-Hur (1959), Titanic (1997) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). In the film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) he has played as King Théoden. Titanic and The Return of the King are the two films which have grossed more than $ 1 Billion. Bernard Hill has also acted in Gandhi which was directed by Richard Attenborough and stars Ben Kingsley as Gandhi.

In which year National Leprosy Eradiction Program came into sffect ?

The National leprosy Control Programme was launched by Government of India in 1955. This programme was based upon Dapsone (diamino-diphenyl sulfone) domicillary treatment. In 1970s Dapsone in combination with rifampicin and clofazimine as multidrug therapy (MDT) for the treatment of Mycobacterium leprae infections (leprosy) was indentified. This MDT came into wide applications by 1982. The use of MDT for Leprosy was recommended by WHO and in this context in 1981 the Government of India established a high power committee to deal with the problem of leprosy. Dr. M S Swaminathan was the chairman of this committee. Based upon the recommendations of WHO Study group followed by Dr. M S Swaminathan Committee, the Government launched National Leprosy Eradication Programme in 1983. The NLEP was launched as a 100% centrally sponsored scheme. For 7-8 years this programme could bring limited results. In 1991 World Health Assembly resolved to eliminate leprosy at a global level by the year 2000 and in 1993 first World bank Supported Project to eradicate leprosy was launched in India. The first project worth Rs. 550 crore ended in 2000. Second project partially funded by World Bank ended in 2004.

Since 2005, the government is running this programme from Govt. of India funds with additional support from WHO and ILEP. The global elimination of Leprosy was achieved in 2001. India achieved in 2005.

How many times India won hockey world cup?
India won the world cup Hockey for one time in 1975, at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. India defeated Pakistan in the final by 2-1. First world Cup Hockey was organized in 1971 and Champion was Pakistan. Pakistan has won this championship for 4 times. Australia has won for 3 times. India was runner up in second world cup Hockey in 1973 when India was defeated by Netherlands.

On which account is the salary of the judges of the high court charged?
The salaries and other expenses of the judges and maintenance of the state high courts are charged from Consolidated fund of the state. The article 202 deals with the state budget. Article 202(3) says: The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of each State—
  1. the emoluments and allowances of the Governor and other expenditure relating to his office;
  2. the salaries and allowances of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, also of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council;
  3. debt charges for which the State is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt;
  4. expenditure in respect of the salaries and allowances of Judges of any High Court;
  5. any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal;
  6. any other expenditure declared by this Constitution, or by the Legislature of the State by law, to be so charged.

However please note that the retired Judges are entitled to a pension which is drawn from consolidated fund of India.

What is the difference in Gross NPA & Net NPA ?

Gross NPA is the amount outstanding in the borrowal account, in books of the bank other than the interest which has been recorded and not debited to the borrowal account. Net NPAs is the amount of grosss NPAs less (1) interest debited to borrowal and not recovered and not recognized as income and kept in interest suspense (2) amount of provisions held in respect of NPAs and (3) amount of claim received and not appropriated.

The Reserve Bank of India defines Net NPA as
Net NPA = Gross NPA – (Balance in Interest Suspense account + DICGC/ECGC claims received and held pending adjustment + Part payment received and kept in suspense account + Total provisions held).
The Reserve Bank of India Banks has advised the banks to compute their Gross Advances, Net Advances, Gross NPAs and Net NPAs as per the following format w.e.f. September 2009.


Filed under: General Knowledge, , , , ,

World Book and Copyright Day 2010 Celebration in Kendriya Vidyalay Baramulla

Kendriya vidyalaya baramulla organised Book exhibition on theoccasion of world book Day and Copyright Day 2010 under the able guidance of Shri Khalid, Librarian.

Books Exhibition was inaugurated by the Principal shri A.k puri. The students of Classes I To X were given the chance to eyecatch especially the new additions in the library in the last 10th month. As students were over enthuasistic  & were eager to know & see the latest additions, they took kee interest and were eager to get the books issued for reading. On the whole the vary purpose of creating interest and developing reading habits amongst the atudents  was a very succesful attempt on the part of librarian as well as librarian.

Filed under: Library Activities,

World Book and Copyright day 2010

World Book and Copyright day 2010

23rd April is a figurative date for world creative writing as on this date and in the unchanged year of 1616, Cervantes, Shakespeare and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega all died. It is as well the date of birth or death of other famous authors for example Maurice Druon, K.Laxness, Vladimir Nabokov, Josep Pla and Manuel Mejía Vallejo. It was a usual selection for UNESCO’s General Conference to give a world-wide honour to books and authors on this date, cheering everyone, specifically young people, to find out the happiness of reading and achieve a transformed admiration for the unique contributions of those who have furthered the communal and cultural development of humankind. By commemorating this Day all through the world,UNESCO aims to promote reading, publishing and the protection of intellectual property by the means of copyright.

Ljubljana will be World Book Capital City in the period between the World Book and Copyright Day 2010 and the World Book and Copyright Day 2011.

World Book and Copyright day 2010 History

The proposal for this festivity started off in Catalonia where on 23 April, Saint George’s Day, a rose is usually given as a gift for every book sold. The 23rd April was celebrated as a way of respect the author Miguel deCervantes  who died on that day. This turned out to be a part of the merriment of the Saint George’s Day in the region, where it has been customary since the medieval epoch for men to give roses to their lovers and since 1925 for the woman to give a book in replace. About half of the yearly sales of books will be at this time in Catalonia with over 400,000 sold and exchanged for over 4 million roses.

In 1995, UNESCO resolute that the World Book and Copyright Day would be observed on this date due to the Catalonian festival and since the date is also the anniversary of the birth and death of William Shakespeare, the death of Miguel deCervantes, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Josep Pla, the birth of Maurice Druon, Vladimir Nabokov, Manuel Mejía Vallejo and Halldór Laxness.

Even though 23 April is often avowed as the anniversary of the deaths of both Shakespeare and Cervantes, this is not fitting. Cervantes died on 23 April as per the Gregorian calendar; on the other hand, at that instance England still used the Julian calendar. At the same time Shakespeare died on 23 April by the Julian calendar in use in his own nation at the time, in fact he died ten days after Cervantes, because of the inconsistency between the two date systems. The obvious correspondence of the two dates was a lucky accident forUNESCO.

Rationale Behind the Day

World Book and Copyright Day is an event to pay a universal mark of respect to books and authors and to persuading people to find out the enjoyment of reading. It is expected that this will show the way to the transformed respect for those who have made unique contributions to social and educational advancements. In some years, theUNESCO Prize for Children’s and Young People’s Literature in the Service of Tolerance is granted. This is a prize for novels, collections of short stories or picture books that encourage broadmindedness, harmony, mutual understanding and high opinion for other peoples and cultures. There are two types: one for books targeting at children aged up to 12 years; and one for those targeting at young people aged 13 to 18 years.

It is also hoped that World Book and Copyright Day will add to people’s perceptive of and obedience to copyright rules and other methods to defend intellectual copyright.

The success of the World Book and Copyright Day will depend primarily on the support of authors, publishers, teachers, librarians, public and private institutions, humanitarian NGOs and the mass media who have been mobilized in each country byUNESCO National Commissions, UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations, Associated Schools and Libraries, and by all those who feel motivated to work together in this world celebration ofbooks and authors.

World Book and Copyright day 2010 Events and Activities

A variety of events to uphold reading and the educational features of books are held all over the world. A lot of of these highlight global collaboration or friendships between countries. Proceedings include: relay readings of books and plays; the circulation of bookmarks; the declaration of the winners of literary contests and actions to encourage the knowledge of laws on copyright and the guarding of authors’intellectual property.

Filed under: Important Days,

Earth Day April 22, 2010

Why is it important to celebrate Earth Day?

Ans:- Earth Day raises an awareness to save the Earth. Especially in times of global warming, we should celebrate Earth Day to remind us to conserve natural resources for future use. Earth supports life, and we should be happy about it.

History of Earth Day

Earth Day — April 22 — each year marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in 1970.

Among other things, 1970 in the United States brought with it the Kent State shootings, the advent of fiber optics, “Bridge Over Troubled Water,” Apollo 13, the Beatles’ last album, the death of Jimi Hendrix, the birth of Mariah Carey, and the meltdown of fuel rods in the Savannah River nuclear plant near Aiken, South Carolina — an incident not acknowledged for 18 years.

History of Earth Day

Participant in Earth Day, 1970.
Photo: EPA History Office

It was into such a world that the very first Earth Day was born.

Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson, then a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, proposed the first nationwide environmental protest “to shake up the political establishment and force this issue onto the national agenda. ” “It was a gamble,” he recalls, “but it worked.”

At the time, Americans were slurping leaded gas through massive V8 sedans. Industry belched out smoke and sludge with little fear of legal consequences or bad press. Air pollution was commonly accepted as the smell of prosperity. Environment was a word that appeared more often in spelling bees than on the evening news.

Earth Day 1970 turned that all around.

On April 22, 20 million Americans took to the streets, parks, and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Denis Hayes, the national coordinator, and his youthful staff organized massive coast-to-coast rallies. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment. Groups that had been fighting against oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, raw sewage, toxic dumps, pesticides, freeways, the loss of wilderness, and the extinction of wildlife suddenly realized they shared common values.

Denis Hayes – Honorary Chair, Earth Day Network

History of Earth DayEarth Day 1970 achieved a rare political alignment, enlisting support from Republicans and Democrats, rich and poor, city slickers and farmers, tycoons and labor leaders. The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the passage of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species acts.

Sen. Nelson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom — the highest honor given to civilians in the United States — for his role as Earth Day founder.

As 1990 approached, a group of environmental leaders asked Denis Hayes to organize another big campaign. This time, Earth Day went global, mobilizing 200 million people in 141 countries and lifting the status of environmental issues on to the world stage. Earth Day 1990 gave a huge boost to recycling efforts worldwide and helped pave the way for the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.

As the millennium approached, Hayes agreed to spearhead another campaign, this time focused on global warming and a push for clean energy. Earth Day 2000 combined the big-picture feistiness of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. For 2000, Earth Day had the Internet to help link activists around the world. By the time April 22 rolled around, 5,000 environmental groups around the world were on board, reaching out to hundreds of millions of people in a record 184 countries. Events varied: A talking drum chain traveled from village to village in Gabon, Africa, for example, while hundreds of thousands of people gathered on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., USA.

EPA Administrator William K. Reilly with former Senator Gaylord Nelson, Earth Day 1990. Photo: EPA History Office

EPA Administrator William K. Reilly with former Senator Gaylord Nelson, Earth Day 1990. Photo: EPA History Office

Earth Day 2000 sent the message loud and clear that citizens the world ’round wanted quick and decisive action on clean energy.

Now, the fight for a clean environment continues. We invite you to be a part of this history and a part of Earth Day. Discover energy you didn’t even know you had. Feel it rumble through the grass roots under your feet and the technology at your fingertips. Channel it into building a clean, healthy, diverse world for generations to come.

40th Anniversary of Earth Day
April 22, 2010

Forty years after the first Earth Day, the world is in greater peril than ever. While climate change is the greatest challenge of our time, it also presents the greatest opportunity – an unprecedented opportunity to build a healthy, prosperous, clean energy economy now and for the future.

Earth Day 2010 can be a turning point to advance climate policy, energy efficiency, renewable energy and green jobs. Earth Day Network is galvanizing millions who make personal commitments to sustainability. Earth Day 2010 is a pivotal opportunity for individuals, corporations and governments to join together and create a global green economy. Join the more than one billion people in 190 countries that are taking action for Earth Day.

Filed under: Important Days, , , ,

Sleep Better Every Night

Ashwin Baluja looks at the clock and knows it’s going to be another long night. It’s 3:30am, but 27-year-old Baluja is staring at the ceiling, agonizing over the fact that he has to leave for work in about five hours. But, for him, sleep is a dream long gone by.
“I have difficulty falling asleep, and even when I do it’s broken,” says Baluja, a Mumbai graphics designer.  “It’s almost three to four times a week that I spend the night, tossing and turning, unable to sleep. There are times when I am so tired and just want to sleep, but my mind doesn’t seem to understand.”
Baluja seems to have a fair idea of how this began. It started when, as an intern at a design studio, he had to work late, stressful hours. That job ended three years ago, but Baluja believes his body-clock remains set to that old routine. He also feels that his then lifestyle, involving alcohol consumption and antihistamines to treat an allergy, may have contributed to his insomnia.
Like many people with poor sleep habits, Baluja has tried drinking warm milk at night and listening to soft music. “People don’t seem to take sleep very seriously,” feels Baluja. “I didn’t either, till the lack of it began to affect my concentration and my daily work.” Baluja now plays basketball four times a week and does a bit of meditation and finds that things are improving at night.
In December, Philips Healthcare released the findings of their survey, conducted among 5600 people aged between 35 and 65, across 25 Indian cities. It revealed that 93 percent of urban Indians are sleep-deprived, getting less than eight hours of shut-eye daily. As many as 58 percent of these felt that their work suffered from their lack of adequate sleep, with many falling asleep at work. Other findings among those polled in the Philips Sleep Survey: 11 percent of office workers take leave because of lack of sleep.  71 percent mentioned waking up anywhere between one and three times during the night. 63 percent exhibited a high risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a condition characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep, which can
potentially lead to heart ailments, and, in rare cases, even trigger a heart attack.

Can a milk drink help?
There’s some science behind the old wives’ tale that a warm, milky drink will soothe you to sleep. Milk contains the amino acid tryptophan, which is used by the brain to boost levels of the calming neurotransmitter (brain chemical) serotonin and the sleep-
inducing hormone melatonin. It’s unlikely, though, that the natural level of tryptophan in milk will markedly change mood and relaxation.

People with chronic sleeplessness probably don’t want to hear about the significant health issues they face:
The numerous short and long-term problems such as poor concentration, emotional stress, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Insomnia can also wreak havoc on relationships and your ability to work, while the constant lethargy it induces discourages sufferers from doing things they enjoy.
“If you have disturbed sleep, which may be in the form of trouble falling asleep, early awakening, frequent waking and if you don’t feel rested, you are likely suffering from insomnia,” says Dr Manvir Bhatia, director of New Delhi’s Neurology and Sleep Centre, and chairperson of the Department of Sleep Medicine at the city’s Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. “Impairment in daytime activity—like experiencing fatigue, headache, poor concentration and irritability—is the usual symptom of insomnia and more often than not, this problem is lifestyle-induced.”
While commonly heard wisdom maintains that we all need eight hours of sleep to feel refreshed, the right amount varies with individuals. Also, sleep requirements change throughout life and the hours you need when you are young may be different from what you need when you’re older. “Most people need about eight hours of sleep, but even six hours of sound sleep could be adequate,” says Dr Sanjeev Mehta, a sleep disorders specialist at Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai.

If you relate to one or more of these statements, you may have an underlying medical problem causing secondary insomnia.

  • I wake up in pain regularly.
  • I wake constantly because I need to go to the toilet.
  • I feel I may have depression, which is causing my sleeping problems.

What’s the good news for poor sleepers? Drug-free treatments that target problematic behaviours can help. Although these treatments may have complex titles such as stimulus control, sleep restriction and cognitive therapy, they are actually simple methods designed to help you change your routine and your beliefs to allow sleep to come more easily. Put together, these treatments come under the banner of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
The principles are simple in theory, but it takes time and commitment to incorporate them into your daily life. However, research shows the effort is worth it, because CBT has proven to be more effective than traditional sleep medications. A 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found the total wake-up time of participants undergoing CBT for six weeks was reduced by 52 percent compared with a 4 percent reduction in patients receiving medication alone.
“Sleep hygiene is very important,” says Dr Bhatia. “Follow a fixed bedtime and wake-time routine. This will help create a regular sleep cycle.”
Dr Bhatia discourages self-medication. “Always seek the help of a therapist or counsellor,” he advises.

What is insomnia?

The first step in sleeping better is to understand what type of insomnia you may have and whether or not you have an underlying medical or physical condition that is exacerbating the problem. The two types of insomnia are primary and secondary.

Identify your insomnia
If you can relate to one or more of these statements, you may have
primary insomnia.

  • can’t fall asleep easily because my mind is so busy.
  • I am a light sleeper and, when I awaken, I can’t get back to sleep.
  • I regularly nap through the day to catch up on lost sleep at night.
  • I am very anxious about going to bed because I know that I won’t sleep.
  • I feel I am doomed to have a bad day when I don’t sleep well.

Secondary insomnia is usually caused by a medical problem such as sleep apnoea, restless legs, nocturnal cough, cardiovascular problems, chronic pain, depression or prostate problems. Behavioural treatments can help you improve sleep even if you suffer from one of these conditions, but it is advisable that you see your family doctor about your health as well.
Primary insomnia is fancy terminology that simply lumps together everything else that can cause sleep problems. The term primary means that the insomnia is not caused by any known physical or mental condition. In most cases, insomnia, the initial cause of the sleep problem—be it anxiety or stress at work—is long forgotten, as in the case of Ashwin Baluja. But the problem continues out of habit, an inability to right the body clock and/or stress and anxiety about lack of sleep itself.
“Sleep deprivation is your body and mind’s way of telling you that something is not right,” says Dr Leena Shah, a Mumbai clinical psychologist.  “Sometimes even when a person is too happy, he may not be able to sleep well.”
The main categories of insomnia are:
• Difficulty initiating sleep: where people have trouble falling asleep and take more than 30 minutes to do so.
• Difficulty maintaining sleep: where people wake up for a lengthy period and have trouble falling back to sleep. (It is considered “normal” to wake up once or twice during the night for short periods of a minute or so.)
• Difficulties initiating and main- taining sleep: where people suffer from a combination of both problems.
Most people who struggle with sleep do so for a long time and usually without consulting their doctor. Few Indians who suffer sleep difficulties seek help from their doctor, and that needs to change

Change unhelpful thoughts and behaviours

If you take a certain stress stimulus to bed, it can  cause distress and make it hard for you to get sleep. But try leaving such stress-causing thoughts behind and you’re more likely to get sleep naturally, says Dr Leena Shah.
Long-term insomnia takes a little more work and time to resolve. On the following pages you’ll find three main CBT principles to treat insomnia. The first two components—sleep restriction and stimulus control—help you to recognize, pinpoint and make behavioural changes, while the third component, cognitive therapy, addresses unhelpful thoughts and beliefs related to sleep problems.

Break your bad habits

Here are three ways to attack your bad sleeping patterns. You’ll see maximum improvement if you adopt a combination of them. Follow our daily seven-step plan (page 119) every day for four to six weeks to start to see improvements. People with long-term insomnia may need longer to break the habit.

Sleep restriction

This method increases your natural drive for sleep. Your aim is to match the time you spend in bed with the time you actually sleep. The way to achieve this is to go to bed as late as possible so that you are ready for sleep. Most importantly, you must get up around the same time every morning. This is because rising at the same time every day and letting natural light flood into your eyes resets your body clock.

Stimulus control

If you can’t get to sleep after 15 to 20 minutes, get up. Do any activity that helps to slow down your mind and body so you are better prepared for sleep. If you have chronic insomnia, you may find you get out of bed many times through the night at the beginning of the treatment, but the number of times and the length of time you are up will decrease if you stick with it.
“As a part of sleep hygiene, you must avoid all physically stimulating activity before bedtime. The bedroom should be comfortable and should
not be used for watching television or surfing the internet,” suggests
Dr Bhatia. “Do not simply lie in bed and wait for sleep to come. Instead, let sleep come to you. Try reading or listening to soothing music.”

Cognitive therapy

Cognitive therapy is about exploring unhelpful thoughts surrounding sleep so that you can replace them with more helpful statements. It is most successful when conducted under the guidance of a psychologist, but there are things you can try at home to shift unhelpful thoughts.
Ask yourself the questions below. If you tend to have unhelpful thoughts, change them to helpful ones so that you can face bedtime in a less tense state.
• Do I believe the quality of my day is completely dependent on my sleep?
• Can I leave my sleeping problems in the bedroom and face the day in a positive way even after a bad night’s sleep?
• Do I have some nights where my sleep is better? If so, what am I doing differently?
• Do I feel there is something wrong with me if I don’t sleep well?• Can I think of positive statements to replace negative thoughts about sleep?

Filed under: Article of Week,

How to Crack A Bank Interview

This article is an effort of the author to respond numerous comments left by the candidates who have cleared the written part of State Bank of India’s Clerical Recruitment Examination. The author tries to make it suitable for all Bank Interviews.

Six Myths of Banking Interviews:
To succeed in your interview, you should be able to remove the following misconceptions or myths about the bank interviews:

  • Myth 1: Only Aggressive Candidates Are Selected:
    This is a false notion of many of the candidates that- to impress the interview board, one has to be aggressive. In the interview, your attitude, your confidence and sincerity with which you communicate matters only. Many Candidates commit the mistake of showing off their shallow knowledge or even negative frame of mind while being interviewed.
  • Myth 2: Speak More To Win In An Interview:
    Speaking more does not mean more chances of success. Some candidates have a habit of stretching a topic, unnecessarily sometimes. While speaking shows your depth of understanding a question, speaking more than necessary will make you face cross questions.
  • Myth 3: Project Yourself In Style To Impress The Interview Board
    The bottom-line is to BE YOURSELF. Don’t make an effort to project what you are not. What the interviewer is looking into you, are the traits of an employee, who once selected will be an integral part of the banking organization.
  • Myth 4: Interview Board Has A Formal Atmosphere:
    The reality is- in most cases the interview board has the casual atmosphere to provide the candidates. The board is interested in knowing your attitude and approach towards men and matters along with your outlook on life and your reaction to certain situations.

The board is keen on judging the real persona in you and brings the best out of you.

  • Myth 5: In Bank Interviews All Questions Are Related To Finance & Banking:
    In Bank interviews not all questions are tricky and based upon finance and economics. While the board looks for a flair of finance, business and economy in the candidate, they can ask questions from every branch of activity including political, social , economical to cultural and scientific. If you are appearing for a Job Interview of a Clerical Post , they won’t expect you to be a financial expert. Similarly, if you are appearing in a Bank PO Interview, they may ask you some basics of banking, yet you are not expected to know the answers of very difficult questions such as various articles of negotiable instruments act or RBI act etc.
  • Myth 6: It’s a good idea to prepare with pre-scripted questions:
    It’s not at all a good idea to go to an interview with a pre-determined script of answers. However , you should know some basic definitions and terms related to banking like repo rate, reverse repo rates, difference between them , their application by RBI, latest rates and their impact on economy, open market operations, liquidity adjustment facility, base rate system, Basel-I , Basel-II, CRAR, Universal banking, narrow banking, retail banking, mobile banking, cross selling, micro-finance, financial inclusion, role of RBI, difference between a commercial bank and cooperative Bank.
    Apart from this an insight into economical topics like demand, supply, markets, competition, services industry, banking sector, bank marketing is also required. These questions cannot be prepared by a predetermined script.

Understanding Basics of an Interview:

  • The Interview Board:
    In most Bank Interviews the panel is of 3-5 members. While 3 or 4 of them ask you questions, one may watch your body language and confidence level.
  • The Duration of Interview:
    Most bank interviews run for 5-15 minutes depending upon the response, depth of knowledge and attitude of the candidates.
  • Number of Questions:
    In most interviews the number of questions ranges from 10 to 15 questions. The initial 2-3 questions are to judge what you are.
  • The first usual question is “Introduce Yourself” or “Tell me something about you”.
  • Next one or two questions may be related to your family background such as your parents and siblings, your marital status, kids if you are married.
  • Next few questions would be aimed to judge your suitability and adaptability to the job. Some common questions are ” why you want to join banking? ” or “You are in marketing why don’t you look for a marketing job? ” or “You have done an MBA, why you want to join banking industry Now? “
  • The questions on your adaptability are thrown to you to judge whether you are fit for changed circumstances. For example, they may ask you whether it will be suitable for you, to join a rural branch of the bank? Girls may be specially asked if they are ready to live away from their families.

What Topics You Should Read?
While there is no prescribed manner in which you should prepare for the interview questions, here are a few suggested topics that you should go through.
(A): About your bank
You need to go to the website of the particular bank for which you have applied and spend some time reading about its history, profile, present organization, products & services, brands etc.
(B) Banking Topics: some most commonly discussed topics are:

  • Types of banks
  • Functions of banks,
  • Difference between various types of banks.
  • Types of accounts, deposits, remittances, RTGS
  • Collection of Bills, Checks, Advances, Loans, Locker facilities, Different delivery channels. bank services, bank customer care, Mobile
  • Banking, Internet banking, challenges of Internet and mobile banking, Retail banking, Financial Inclusion, Financial Literacy, Money markets, Investments, Options, futures and forwards, Credit rating, merchant banking, Over seas banking and home banking, personal banking, Various Loan Products, Plastic Money & Credit cards. Cross selling and up selling
  • RBI & its functions,
  • Some basics about capital markets.

The best available source online for the above topics is RBI Common Man Site

Handling Cross Questions on Academic Background:
Usually the first question is about you. The questions that follow may arise from your answers. Before you start preparing, you should give a thought on possible cross questions that may be asked.

For example, a candidate while giving an introduction about himself / herself mentions that he / she has done BA in History. The interviewer puts next question – Ok, now you have decided to join banking industry, how you shall correlate your subject history to banking?
This is a typical example. The possible right answer would be – being a student of history, I understand the historical aspects of the present economic scenario of our country. India has been subject to exploitation by the foreign powers for centuries its impact is still reflected as widespread illiteracy and poverty in rural areas.

Next question may be asked on financial Inclusion or financial literacy or about a village branch and your working in that branch. They may also put some hypothetical questions.

While it’s bit easy for a students with Management , Commerce and Economics background students to easily correlate their academic background to the banking career, its bit difficult for graduates from History, Geography, Sociology, Literature,Philosophy, Psychology, Home Sciences, Biology, Chemistry And Physics Subjects.
A little bit imagination and creative answers can help to win the heart of the interviewers easily.

  • For example – the student with Geography background would co relate his subject to banking in this way: “Our country is 7th largest country in the world and second largest by population. The geographical distribution of population is uneven and so is banking. While there are good banking facilities available in the bigger towns and cities, villages still lack of the basic banking services. “
  • A student with sociology background can easily correlate the banking to his / her academic career by giving an example of social & cultural diversity and demographic distribution in the country.
  • A science student can correlate his own academic subjects with banking by mentioning the impact of the information technology & science on banking. A psychology student can correlate his / her subject by discussing about the customer service, customer profiles etc.
  • Typical Question: Are you joining the bank for a Job security?
    This is a common question. Of course everybody knows that bank jobs are secure jobs today, yet to tell the interviewer directly that you are joining the bank for a job security would leave a negative imprint. Tell that apart from a secure job, you are looking for a challenging job profile which makes you integral part of the growing financial system of the country.
  • Typical Question: Will you join if you are appointed to serve in a remote village branch?
    This is a very common question, mostly asked from Girls / ladies/ married people. The answer has to be YES in any case, as any ifs and buts will give a negative impression. In most cases this question is asked to judge your adaptability.

The best answer would be : Yes, I am ready to join a village branch because it will give me more responsibilities and work experience.
If you are married, you will be further told that you will have to leave your family will that affect you. Your response has to be: Yes it will affect, but for me my career is more important and after all i am doing for the sake of my family.

  • Handling Hypothetical Questions:
    Sometimes a hypothetical situation is given to you and the interviewer may ask you to suggest a strategy. These types of questions may be related to social and political problems of the country as a whole. For example they may ask you
    -What is Naxalism and how to get rid of Naxalism,
    -how to achieve 100% financial inclusion
    -How to end terrorism
    -How to make India corruption free
    -How to make people financially literate
    -How to eradicate poverty from India
    -How will you compare India and China’s economy?
    -What is America’s role in India’s politics / economy?
    -What will be your role to bring more business to your branch?
    -How you will improve the marketing strategies of your bank?
    the list is endless…..
  • The questions depend upon the mood of the interviewer and also the background, attitude of the candidate. Please note that for clerical posts, there are more direct questions, for Managerial Jobs the number of hypothetical questions may be more.
  • How to Handle Such Questions?
    The examiner does not expect a solution of a socio economic problem. These are ubiquitous problems and even the political powers are unable to solve them. However the idea of the interviewer is to judge your depth of current affairs knowledge and your perception / opinion about the socioeconomic conditions.
  • How to make your own OPINION on socio economic issues?
    The people who regularly read newspapers, particularly editorials & columns can express their opinions about the social and economic issues. However if you don’t find it suitable to read editorials and columns then here is a short cut trick to develop your opinion:

Every news paper has a “Readers Letters” column on its editorial page. Choose a Newspaper with more number of “Readers Letters”. Just go through all “Readers Letters” everyday and you will easily develop your own opinion by reading other people’s opinion about a particular topic

  • Typical Question: Introduce yourself / Tell something about yourself?
    You have to tell your name and place where you live. Your last degree/ job. You may also mention your university / college and your last company where you worked. You may or may not mention your family background. No need to tell your date of birth.
  • Your Family Background:
    This question may or may not be asked. Sometimes they ask you to judge your social and cultural values, dislocation on appointment or promotion, problems of growing children if you are married, serving wife, parents who are old and need care.
    If any of your parents / siblings is in Service Industry, you must mention. If nobody from services background and you belong to a moderate business family, tell them briefly about your family business.
  • Please Note:
    You have to be careful about your family business because next question may be – why don’t you join your family business? A responsible and just answer is expected. If you exaggerate about your own business and give an impression that you are from a rich family – it will be a negative imprint. They don’t hire people with expensive habits.
  • Why do you want to Join Banking Sector?
    Don’t tell them that you are looking for a safe job. Mention that it is a challenging industry, one of the fastest growing sector. Talk about India’s recent trends in Banking.
  • Why you want to shift your job?
    If you are already in a job, you may expect this question. The answer may vary from person to person, but you should not complain about your past job, your past boss or company. If you are in sales, don’t tell them that you don’t enjoy field job. They look for ambitious people and so tell them that your ambitions can be fulfilled in banking industry. Tell them that your past job was not challenging and was a mere typical 10 to 5 job which you did not like.
  • Your Strengths And Weaknesses?
    While you are free to mention any of your strengths including you being a adventure lover, bold, extrovert, sociable and its easy for you to win friends. However, be careful about your mentioning weaknesses. Tell a weakness that indicates strength. For example, you mention that office politics makes you nervous and reduces your productivity. Mention that you cannot work without pressure. You need pressure to work more. Good food may be your weakness which does not affect your professional life. If you have some weakness which may affect your job, you will not be hired. Never discuss about addictions if you have any.
  • Why You Should Be Selected And What If Not Selected?
    You have to tell them that you prepared honestly for your selection and confident of your success. You should be selected because you have sincerely done your duty to prepare for the written exam and clear it with your own perseverance.
    If not selected? Tell them that you are going to reappear in the exam with more confidence.
  • What will be your Reaction if selected / not selected?
    If selected you will be happiest person because you are going to join a professional organization. Don’t tell them directly, what you will do if not selected. Mention that you are 100 % confident about your success. if the interviewer persists on your not getting selected tell him , that you will again prepare and re appear whenever a similar vacancy exists in this bank or another bank because you have finally decided to join Banking sector only.
  • How did you prepare for this interview?
    Tell them that you prepared reading various newspapers, books. Next question may be about a newspaper / magazine you like.
  • Tackling Hobby Questions:
    Hobby questions must be answered carefully. This is because the hobby related answers always give rise to cross questions. For example if you said that you love listening to music, you MUST know something about the music you love. If you tell them that you love Indian classical music and don’t know about Pandit Jasraj this means you are telling a lie. Similarly, if you tell, reading is your hobbey, you may be asked about particular books you have read. In other words, you should have a general knowledge about your hobby. Further, Its not correct to say that people with outdoor activities as hobbies are preferred.
  • Finally 10 Keys to get Success:
  1. Be confident
  2. Believe in yourself
  3. Put some counter questions if you feel so
  4. Agree or disagree with the interviewer
  5. Be neutral to Sensitive issues
  6. Don’t answer in Hurry
  7. Practice Before Your Interview
  8. Be neutral to political parties /
  9. Be honest with your Country and your countrymen.

10.  Be sincere…Sincere people never fail.

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Common College entry test country wide by 2013

Common College entry test country wide by 2013

The central board of secondary education (CBSE) has said the abolition of the Class X Boards should not give schools the idea that they can introduce the new CCE scheme according to their whims and fancy. Even as CBSE is thinking of introducing CCE in classes XI and XII, it is also going to introduce a ‘mentoring and monitoring’ mechanism from March this year to maintain uniformity in CCE practices across schools and to check any violations.

Parents have already been complaining about the added burden on their children, saying schools have been giving extra weekly or daily tests, quizzes and project work on the pretext of implementation of CCE, and now CBSE officials too are confirming that they have been getting reports of schools handling out daily tests, experiments and project work ever since the introduction of the new system. CBSE chairman Shri Vineet Joshi said: “Everyday rests and quizzes are against the philosophy of CCE itself.

CCE’s purpose is to distress education for children and yet ensure the holistic growth of every child”.

Saying that CCE activities should be confined to the core curriculum and that most activities should be conducted within school hours, Shri Joshi added : All projects, experiments and activities should happen strictly during school hours, they should notbe passed n as homework. CCE is a way of evaluation and that should happen in front of the teacher, in school”.

Filed under: Educational News

Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010

Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010

Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010 was earlier drafted as Prevention of Torture Bill, 2009. The bill is a sequel to India’s inking the 1975 UN Convention against torture and other cruel, Inhuman and Degrading treatment or punishment in 1997.

  • The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment also known as Torture Convention was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10 December 1984.
  • It entered into force on 26 June 1987 after it had been ratified by 20 States.
  • India signed this convention on 14 Oct 1997 .
  • India is yet to ratify this convention.

Ratification by India:
The Indian Penal Code has some provision regarding the subject matter of this convention, however it does not define ‘torture’ as clearly as in Article 1 of the convention nor make it criminal as called for by Article 4 of this convention. This is a prerequisite of ratifying the convention that the country needs to bring in a domestic legislation. The government has earlier thought of modifying the IPC, but it would have complicated the procedure.


  • Criminal law, including all matters included in the Indian Penal Code come under the subject matter of Concurrent List of 7th schedule of the Constitution of India. (see concurrent list subjects 1, 2 & 3)
  • So these issues require a consultation with the state governments also.
  • Besides the mater has been examined at length in consultation with the Law Commission of India and the then attorney general of India.
  • After long deliberation on the issue it was decided to bring a piece of ‘stand alone’ legislation so that the convention could be ratified.

Current Status:
India’s Union cabinet approves a proposal on April 8, 2010 to introduce Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010


// Related Posts with Thumbnails

Filed under: Article of Week, , ,

List of Current Heads of International Organisations

  • African Development Bank: President: Donald Kaberuka, Rwanda (2005)
  • African Union: Chairperson: Muammar al-Gaddafi, Libya (2009-2010) , Bingu wa Mutharika, Malawi (2010)
  • African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP): Dr. Mohamed Ibn Chambas (Ghana) (Since March 4, 2010)
  • Andean Community: Secretary-General: Freddy Ehlers Zurita (Ecuador), (2007)
  • Antarctic Treaty : Executive Secretary: Jan Huber, Netherlands (2004)
  • Arab League: Secretary-General: Amr Moussa, Egypt (2001)
  • Arab Maghreb Union : Secretary-General: Habib Ben Yahia, Tunisia (2006)
  • Asian Development Bank: President: Haruhiko Kuroda, Japan (2005)
  • Asian Football Confederation (AFC) : President: Mohamed bin Hammam, Qatar (2002)
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) : Executive Director: Tran Trong Toan, Vietnam (2006)
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Secretary-General: Surin Pitsuwan, Thailand (2008)
  • Caribbean Community: Secretary-General: Edwin Carrington, Trinidad and Tobago (1992)
  • Central American Parliament: President: Julio Palacios, Panama (2005)
  • Colombo Plan: Secretary-General: Patricia Yoon-Moi Chia, Malaysia (2007)
  • Common Market of East and Southern Africa (COMESA): Secretary-General: Sindiso Ngwenya, Kenya (2008)
  • Commonwealth of Independent States : Executive Secretary: Sergei Lebedev, Russia (2007)
  • Commonwealth of Nations: Head: Queen Elizabeth II (1952) , Secretary-General: Kamalesh Sharma, India (2008)
  • Council of Europe : Secretary General: Thorbjørn Jagland, Norway (2009)
  • East African Community: Secretary-General: Juma Volter Mwapachu, Tanzania (2006)
  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : President: Thomas Mirow, Germany (2008)
  • European Free Trade Association: Secretary-General: Kåre Bryn, Norway (2006)
  • European Ombudsman: Nikiforos Diamandouros, Greece (2003)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization : Director-General: Jacques Diouf, Senegal (1994)
  • Group of Eight (G8) : President (informal): Stephen Harper, Canada (2010)
  • Gulf Cooperation Council : Secretary-General: Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah, Qatar (2002)
  • European Council President: Herman Van Rompuy (2009)
  • Indian Ocean Commission : Secretary-General: Monique Andreas Esoavekomandroso, Madagascar (2004)
  • Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) : President: Luis Alberto Moreno, Colombia (2005)
  • International Atomic Energy Agency : Director-General: Yukiya Amano, Japan (2009)
  • International Civil Aviation Organization : President of the Council: Roberto Kobeh Gonzalez, Mexico (2006)
  • International Committee of the Red Cross : President: Jakob Kellenberger, Switzerland (2000)
  • International Court of Justice : President: Rosalyn Higgins, United Kingdom (2006)
  • International Criminal Court : President: Song Sang-Hyun, South Korea (2009)
  • International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) : Secretary-General: Ronald Noble, United States (2000) President: Khoo Boon Hui, Singapore (2008)
  • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : President: Juan Manuel Suárez del Toro Rivero, Spain (2001)
  • International Labour Organization : Director-General: Juan Somavia, Chile (1999)
  • International Maritime Organization : Secretary-General: Efthimios E. Mitropoulos, Greece (2004)
  • International Monetary Fund : Managing Director: Dominique Strauss-Kahn, France (2007)
  • International Olympic Committee (IOC) : President: Jacques Rogge, Belgium (2001)
  • International Organization for Migration (IOM) : Director-general: William Lacy Swing, United States (2008)
  • International Rugby Board (IRB) : President: Syd Millar, Ireland (2003)
  • International Telecommunication Union : Secretary-General: Hamadoun Touré, Mali (2007)
  • Islamic Development Bank (IDB) : President: Ahmad Mohamed Ali, Saudi Arabia (1975)
  • Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) : President: Michel Platini, France (2007)
  • Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) : Chairman: Hosni Mubarak, Egypt (2009)
  • Nordic Council : Secretary-General: Jan-Erik Enestam, Finland (2007)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation : Secretary-General: Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Denmark (2009)
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Secretary-General: José Ángel Gurría, Mexico (2006)
  • Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States : Director-General: Len Ishmael, Saint Lucia (2003)
  • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) : Secretary-General: Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, France (2005)
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) : Secretary-General: Edmund Daukoru, Nigeria, acting (2006)
  • Organization of the Islamic Conference: Secretary-General: Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Turkey (2005)
  • Pacific Community : Director-General: Jimmie Rodgers, Solomon Islands (2006)
  • Pacific Islands Forum : Secretary-General: Tuiloma Neroni Slade, Samoa (2008)
  • President of the European Central Bank: Jean-Claude Trichet, France (2003)
  • President of the European Commission: José Manuel Barroso, Portugal (2004)
  • President of the European Court of Auditors: Hubert Weber, Austria (2005)
  • President of the European Court of Human Rights: Jean-Paul Costa, France (2007)
  • President of the European Court of Justice (ECJ): Vassilios Skouris, Greece (2003)
  • President of the European Investment Bank (EIB): Philippe Maystadt, Belgium (2000)
  • President of the European Parliament: Josep Borrell, Spain (2004)
  • President of the Pan-African Parliament: Idriss Ndele Moussa, Chad (2009)
  • President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE): Lluís Maria De Puig, Spain (2008)
  • Secretary-General of the Council and High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy: Javier Solana, Spain (1999)
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) : Secretary-General: Bolat Nurgaliyev, Kazakhistan (2007)
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) : Secretary General : Sheel Kant Sharma
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) : Chairman: Mahinda Rajapaksa
  • Southern African Development Community : Executive Secretary: Tomaz Salomão, Mozambique (2005)
  • Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) : Director of the Executive Secretariat: Reginaldo Braga Arcuri, Brazil (2003)
  • UN President of the General Assembly: Miguel d’Escoto Brockmann, Nicaragua (2008)
  • Union of South American Nations (Unasur/Unasul) : President: Rafael Correa, Ecuador (2009)
  • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) : Executive Director: Ann Veneman, United States (2005)
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) : Director-General: Irina Bokova, Bulgaria (2009)
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : High Commissioner: Louise Arbour, Canada (2004)
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) : High Commissioner: António Guterres, Portugal (2005)
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) : Director-general: Carlos Alfredo Magariños, Argentina (2005)
  • United Nations Secretary : General: Ban Ki Moon, South Korea (2007)
  • Universal Postal Union : Director-General: Édouard Dayan, France (2005)
  • Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) : Secretary-General: Marino Busdachin, Italy (2003)
  • Western European Union : Secretary-General: Javier Solana, Spain (1999)
  • World Bank : President: Robert Zoellick, United States (2007)
  • World Food Programme (WFP) : Executive Director: James T. Morris, United States (2002)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) : Director-General: Margaret Chan, China (acting) (2007)
  • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) : Director-General: Francis Gurry (2008)
  • World Meteorological Organization (WMO) : President: Alexander Bedritsky, Russia (2003)
  • World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) : Secretary-General : Francesco Frangialli, France (1996)
  • World Trade Organization (WTO) : Director-General: Pascal Lamy, France (2005)

Filed under: Who's Who, , ,

कंप्‍यूटर पर हिन्‍दी में कैसे काम करें

यूनिकोड UNICODE

1.       यूनिकोड क्‍या है:

कम्प्यूटर, मूल रूप से, नंबरों से सम्बंध रखते हैं। ये प्रत्येक अक्षर और वर्ण के लिए एक नंबर निर्धारित करके अक्षर और वर्ण संग्रहित करते हैं। अत: हम कह सकते है कि यूनिकोड प्रत्येक अक्षर के लिए एक विशेष नम्बर प्रदान करता है, चाहे कोई भी प्लैटफॉर्म हो, चाहे कोई भी प्रोग्राम हो, चाहे कोई भी भाषा हो।

1. कंप्‍यूटर की न्‍यूनतम आवश्‍यकताएं Minimum requirements of the system:

क. विन्‍डोज़ 2000 या उच्‍चतर ऑपरेटिंग सिस्‍टम Windows 2000 or Higher Version

ख. एम.एस.ऑफिस एक्‍स.पी. या उच्‍चतर वर्जन MS Office XP or Higher Version

2. यूनिकोड एक्टिवेट करने के लिए सेटिंग्‍स Setting to activate Unicode

क. विन्‍डोज़ 2000 के लिए For Windows:

स्‍टार्ट Start” सेटिंग्‍स Settings ” कंट्रोल पैनल Control Panel ” रीजनल ऑपशन्‍स Regional Option” लेंग्‍वेज सेटिंग्‍स फॉर दी सिस्‍टम में इंडिक को टिक करें Click Indic in Language for the system ” फाइल कॉपी होना शुरू हो जाएगा (यदि आवश्‍यक हो तो कंप्‍यूटर को विन्‍डोज़ 2000 की सी.डी. उपलब्‍ध कराएं) Insert Windows 2000 CD when it asks” फाइल कॉपी हो जाने के बाद कंप्‍यूटर को री-स्‍टार्ट करें ।

ख. विन्‍डोज़ एक्‍स.पी. के लिए For Windows XP

स्‍टार्ट Start ” कंट्रोल पैनल Control Panel” रीजनल एण्‍ड लेंग्‍वेज ऑपशन्‍स Regional & Language Option ” लेंग्‍वेजेस को क्लिक करें Click on Languages Tab ” एडिशनल लेंग्‍वेजेस सपोर्ट Additional Languages support” राइट टू लेफ्ट लेंग्‍वेजेस को टिक करें Click on Right to Left Languages ” फाइल कॉपी होना शुरू हो जाएगा (यदि आवश्‍यक हो तो कंप्‍यूटर को विन्‍डोज़ एक्‍स.पी. की सी.डी. उपलब्‍ध कराएं) Insert Windows XP CD when it asks “फाइल कॉपी हो जाने के बाद कंप्‍यूटर को री-स्‍टार्ट करें।

ग. विन्‍डोज़ विस्‍टा के लिए For Windows Vista

स्‍टार्ट Start” कंट्रोल पैनल Control Panel ” लेंग्‍वेज एंड रीजन Language and Region ” रीजनल एंड लेंग्‍वेज ऑपशन्‍स Regional & Languages Option  ” कीबोर्ड एंड लेंग्‍वेजेस Keyboard & Languages ” चेंज कीबोर्ड Change Keyboard” एड Add” हिंदी भाषा और की-बोर्ड चुनें Select Hindi Language & Keyboard ” ओके OK

3. की-बोर्ड Keyboard  (हिंदी इंडिक आईएमई Hindi Indic IME)

यह की-बोर्ड ड्राइवर http://www.bhashaindia.com पर उपलब्‍ध है।  इसे फ्लॉपी, सी.डी आदि माध्‍यमों से भी डाउनलोड करके इन्‍स्‍टॉल किया जा सकता है । इंटरनेट या सीडी से कंप्‍यूटर पर डाउनलोड करने के बाद उसे रन करें और उसके बाद इस की-बोर्ड को एक्टिवेट करने के लिए निम्‍न प्रकार सेटिंग करें

सेटिंग्‍स Settings:

विन्‍डोज़ 2000 में For Windows 2000:

स्‍टार्ट Start ” कंट्रोल पैनल Control Panel” सेटिंग्‍स Settings रीजनल ऑपशन्‍स Regional Option” इनपुट लोकेल Input Local” चेंज Change ”  इनपुट लेंग्‍वेज एड करें Add Input Language” हिंदी को टिक करें Click Hindi ” इंडिक आईएमई Indic IME” ओ.के. OK

विन्‍डोज़ एक्‍स.पी. में-

स्‍टार्ट Start” कंट्रोल पैनल Control Panel” रीजनल एण्‍ड लेंग्‍वेज ऑपशन्‍स Regional & Languages Option ” लेंग्‍वेजेस Languages ” डीटेल्‍स Details” एड Add ” इनपुट लेंग्‍वेजेस Input Languages ” हिंदी Hindi” की-बोर्ड  लेआउट पर टिक लगाएं और ड्रापडाउन सूची में से इंडिक आइएमई को चुनें Click on Keyboard layout and choose Indic IME from dropdown list ” ओके OK” कंप्‍यूटर को री-स्‍टार्ट करें Restart system

विन्‍डोज़ विस्‍टा में For Window Vista:

स्‍टार्ट Start” कंट्रोल पैनल Control Panel ” लेंग्‍वेज एंड रीजन Language & Region ” रीजनल एंड लेंग्‍वेज ऑपशन्‍स Regional & Languages Option ” कीबोर्ड एंड लेंग्‍वेजेस Keyboard & Languages ” चेंज कीबोर्ड Change Keyboard ” एड Add” हिंदी (इंडिया) Hindi (India) ” हिंदी इंडिक आईएमई की-बोर्ड चुनें Choose Hindi Indic IME” ओके OK

यूनिकोड में टाइपिंग

नया वर्ड डॉक्‍यूमेंट खोलें”स्‍क्रीन के बॉटम ट्रे में दायीं ओर EN (English) चिह्न होगा, उस पर क्लिक करके HI (Hindi) को चुनें ” (HI को चुनते ही की-बोर्ड ड्राइवर क्रियान्वित हो जाएगा) ” टापइराइटर के चित्र पर क्लिक करके अपनी सुविधानुसार की-बोर्ड का चयन करें ” मंगल फॉन्‍ट में हिंदी टाइपिंग शुरू करें ।

अंग्रेजी में टाइप करना हो तो बॉटम ट्रे में HI पर क्लिक करें और EN को चुनें या टोगल-की Alt और Shift को एक बार दबाएं।  पुन: हिंदी में टाइप करने के लिए वही पद्धति अपनाएं।  इसके अलावा आप EN/HI पर क्लिक करके भी भाषा चुन सकते हैं।

उपलब्‍ध की-बोर्ड ले-आउट Available Keyboard Layout:

इसमें तीन प्रकार के की-बोर्ड लेआउट उपलब्‍ध हैं – फोनेटिक (ट्रांसलिटरेशन), इन्‍सक्रिप्‍ट और हिंदी टाइपराटर(गोदरेज, रेमिंगटन आदि)

ख. आकृति की-बोर्ड

जिन कंप्‍यूटरों में आकृति सॉफ्टवेयर पहले से लगा हुआ है और जो उपयोगकर्ता इंडिक आईएमई की-बोर्ड का उपयोग नहीं करना चाहते वे आकृति की-बोर्ड का उपयोग कर सकते हैं। कुछ वर्णों और चिह्नों को छोड़कर अन्‍य सभी वर्ण और चिह्न उसी स्‍थान पर हैं। आकृति इंजिन में निम्‍न प्रकार सेटिंग्‍स करें:

आकृति इंजिन ” फॉन्‍ट ” आकृति यूनिकोड

आकृति का इस्‍तेमाल करते हुए यूनिकोड में टाइपिंग

नया वर्ड डॉक्‍यूमेंट खोलें”स्‍क्रीन के बॉटम ट्रे में दायीं ओर EN (English) चिह्न होगा, उस पर क्लिक करके HI (Hindi) को चुनें  ” जांच लें कि आकृति की-बोर्ड इंजिन की फॉन्‍ट ड्रॉप डाउन सूची में आकृति यूनिकोड का विकल्‍प चुना गया है ” मंगल फॉन्‍ट में हिंदी टाइपिंग शुरू करें। अंग्रेजी में टाइप करने के लिए स्‍क्रॉल-लॉक का उपयोग करें ।

विन्‍डोज़ के रीजनल ऑप्‍शन्‍स में की जाने वाली सेटिंग्‍स आवश्‍यक हैं ।

अब आकृति के निर्माता मेसर्स साइबर स्‍केप ने आकृति विस्‍तार नामक नया हिंदी सॉफ्टवेयर विकसित किया है जिसमें यूनिकोड और गैरयूनिकोड फॉन्‍ट में काम करने की सुविधा है।

ग. बरहा Baraha

यह भी एक यूनिकोड सॉफ्टवेयर है जिसमें फोनेटिक टाइपिंग की सुविधा है । इसे http://www.baraha.com से डाउनलोड किया जा सकता है।

टिप्‍पणी –

1.         आकृति द्विभाषी सॉफ्टवेयर में बनाई गई वर्ड फाइलों को आकृति कन्‍वर्टर की सहायता से यूनिकोड में परिवर्तित किया जा सकता है ।

2.        मंगल फॉन्‍ट के अलावा कोकिला और एरियल यूनिकोड एम.एस भी यूनिकोड फॉन्‍ट हैं जो सामान्‍यत: कंप्‍यूटर में उपलब्‍ध रहते हैं।

4.    यूनिकोड फॉन्‍ट के लाभ

क.       टेबल आदि में डाटा संसाधन किया जा सकता है,

ख.      फाइलों आदि के नाम हिंदी में दिए जा सकते हैं,

ग.       किसी भी स्‍थान पर हिंदी में ई-मेल भेजे जा सकते हैं,

घ.       हिंदी वेबसाइट में इनका उपयोग किया जा सकता है

ङ.       हिंदी में टेम्‍पलेट आसानी से बनाए जा सकते हैं


इंडिक आईएमई ट्रांसलिटरेशन अर्थात् फोनेटिक की-बोर्ड का चार्ट

रोमन देवनागरी रोमन देवनागरी
ka bha
kha ma
ga ya
gha ra
Nga la
cha va / wa
chha sha
ja Sha
jha sa
Nja ha
Ta kSha / xa क्ष
Tha tra त्र
Da Gya / jNja ज्ञ
Dha La

स्‍वर                                              मात्राएं

रोमन देवनागरी
kaa का
ki कि
kee की
ku कु
koo कू
ke के
kai / kei कै
ko को
kau / kou कौ
ka^ कं
kaH कः
kaM कँ
kO कॉ
kA कॅ
kRa / kRu / kRi कृ
kra क्र
रोमन देवनागरी
ai / ei
au / ou
a^ / an अं
aH अः
aM अँ
Ra / Ru / Ri


रोमन देवनागरी


Roman keystrokes
Key combinations
dda द +  halant +  द द्द
ddha द +  halant  +  ध द्ध
dwa/dva द +  halant  +  व द्व
dma द +  halant  +  म द्म
dya द +  halant  +  य द्य
dba द +  halant  +  ब द्ब
dna द +  halant  +  न द्न
dga द +  halant  +  ग द्ग
dgha द +  halant  +  घ द्घ
hma ह +  halant  +  म ह्म
hla ह +  halant  +  ल ह्ल
hva/hwa ह +  halant  +  व ह्व
hna ह +  halant  +  न ह्न
hya ह +  halant  +  य ह्य
ShTa ष +  halant  +   ट ष्ट
ShTha ष +  halant  +  ठ ष्ठ
tta त +  halant  +  त त्त
kta क +  halant  +  त क्त
shcha श +  halant  +  च श्च
shwa/shva श +  halant  +  व श्व
shra श +  halant  +  र श्र


बैंक baink
कलम kalam
कलाम kalaam


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