KV Baramulla Library


Library Media Centre

Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta Sindhu?

Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta sindhu ?

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.
Scholars are not of same opinion on the names and identity of the seven rivers of Sapta sindhu. Most of the scholars agree that the heartland of Rigvedic Aryans was modern Afghanistan, Punjab (Pakistan & India), Haryana & Rajasthan. Further, Kubha River (Kabul), Suwastu (Swat) Kramu (Kurram) & Gomati (Gomal) Rivers have also got place in texts. The Ganga & Yamuna which were mentioned in later Vedic texts indicated the eastern boundary of the Sapta Saindhava Region.
There is a verse in Nadistuti sukta of Rigveda , hymn of praise of rivers which mentions the following 10 rivers: Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Marudvrdha , Vitasta , Arjikiya , Susoma. The Shutudri was Sutlej, Parushni was Ravi, Asikni was Chenab and Vitasta was Jhelum.
The majority of the scholars believe that Sindhu & Saraswati (located in Rajasthan) were the most popular and sacred rivers of that era. Some scholars are of the opinion that the hymns in praise of the Saraswati are probably some of the oldest, composed more than 8000 years ago. The 5 rivers Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Vitasta, Vipas all were tributaries of Sindhu River. Together with Sarasawti and Sindhu, these 5 rivers constituted the Sapta Sindhu.
However saraswati has been mentioned as saptasvasa, which means she with 7 sisters. So, This further leads to a group of 8 Rivers.

With Which Countries India Has a Free Trade Agreement ?

Free Trade Agreement negotiations with ASEAN started in 2002, and came into force from January 1, 2009.

India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement:
India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of India and the President of Sri Lanka on 28 December 1999.

Thailand & Malaysia:
India has a separate Free Trade Agreement with Thailand and Malaysia other than the India-ASEAN FTA.

CEPA with Singapore and South Korea:
India and South Korea had signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement in August 2009. This was the second CEPA signed by India, the other being with Singapore. This was also India’s first bilateral trade agreement with an OECD country.

Apart from the above, India has PTA (Preferential Trade Agreements with) Chile, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal & MERCOSUR
The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) came into force from 1st January, 2006. India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are categorized as Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal are categorized as Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS). Afghanistan which became the eighth member of SAARC during the 14th SAARC Summit held on 3-4 April 2007 in New Delhi is due to become a party to the SAFTA Agreement as an LDC member.


Filed under: General Knowledge, Uncategorized, , ,

You are the Visitor, Number

  • 471,018

RSS Quotes of the Day

  • Scott Westerfeld
    "Sometimes the facts in my head get bored and decide to take a walk in my mouth. Frequently this is a bad thing."
  • Cindy Gardner
    "What's the difference between a boyfriend and a husband? About 30 pounds."


April 2010
« Mar   May »


CBSE & NCERT Sample Q.papers, HOTS study materials, Question Banks Click the "Download:CBSE,NCERT Sample Papers,NCF" link in the category section below on this sidebar

RSS Tell ME Why-Facts

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS History On This Day

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS DiscoveryNews-Top-Stories

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS Article of The Week

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS Books News,Rviews and Authors Interviews

  • The crisis in modern masculinity
    Luridly retro ideas of what it means to be a man have caused a dangerous rush of testosterone around the world – from Modi’s Hindu supremacism to Trump’s nuclear brinkmanshipOn the evening of 30 January 1948, five months after the independence and partition of India, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was walking to a prayer meeting at his temporary home in New Delh […]
  • Howard Jacobson on Manchester: ‘I lack its passion for football and Noel Gallagher’
    The author celebrates the mirth and raucousness of the city that shaped him, and explains why he feels like a fraud when he calls himself MancunianTo say I come from Manchester is shorthand. Who has the patience to listen to me tell how I was born in a nursing home in Prestbury, lived my first years in Salford, the next few in a half Yiddish-speaking shtetl […]
  • Irvine Welsh: ‘When you get older, it’s harder to be a bastard’
    The author talks about his obsessive-compulsive thing, which Trainspotting character he most resembles, and losing his temperIrvine Welsh is doing just fine for money. He knows he never has to work another day in his life, but he can’t stop himself. “I don’t like it when people say I’ve got an addictive personality,” he says. “It’s people who never take drug […]
  • Travelling in a Strange Land by David Park review – daring and deeply felt
    A dark secret and a frozen journey through the fraught terrain of parenthood drive this brave, exhilarating novel“I am entering the frozen land,” this short but breathtaking novel about parental heartache begins. In this strange realm, on the far shore of a frozen lake, there “stands a house. A house with a light burning. In the house are stairs that I know […]
  • Will the real Wackford Squeers step forward?
    There is a new candidate for the man who inspired Charles Dickens’ sadistic and abusive headmaster in Nicholas NicklebyIt is not a claim to fame anyone would relish: the honour of being named as the inspiration for one of Charles Dickens’ most unappealing fictional characters, Wackford Squeers, sadistic headmaster of Dotheboys Hall in Nicholas Nickleby.Even […]

Periodicals Articles Alert

Bachhon ko Nishulk Aur Anivaarya Shiksha Ka adhikaar Adhiniyam 2009, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1823-1825 ; E-Kachara Prabandhan: Ek Chunauti Aur Upaye, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1832-1834; Vitamin Truths & lies,Reader Digest,May2010,P.52-56; Surface Area and Volume, Education Trend,May210,P.65 ; Metals and Non Metals, Education Trend,May210,P.77; The rise of Nationalism in Europe, Education Trend,May210,P.91; Linear Equations in two variables, Education Today,May2010,P.5-15,Federalism, Sectors of Indian Economy and Water Resources Education Today,May2010,P.16-29 ; Acids, Bases and Salts, Education Today,May2010,P.30; Prehistoric Creatures,Tell Me Why,May2010; Disappearing Herbs,Out Look,May24,2010,P.56

Periodicals Arrival in the Library

%d bloggers like this: