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Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta Sindhu?



Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta sindhu ?

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.
Scholars are not of same opinion on the names and identity of the seven rivers of Sapta sindhu. Most of the scholars agree that the heartland of Rigvedic Aryans was modern Afghanistan, Punjab (Pakistan & India), Haryana & Rajasthan. Further, Kubha River (Kabul), Suwastu (Swat) Kramu (Kurram) & Gomati (Gomal) Rivers have also got place in texts. The Ganga & Yamuna which were mentioned in later Vedic texts indicated the eastern boundary of the Sapta Saindhava Region.
There is a verse in Nadistuti sukta of Rigveda , hymn of praise of rivers which mentions the following 10 rivers: Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Marudvrdha , Vitasta , Arjikiya , Susoma. The Shutudri was Sutlej, Parushni was Ravi, Asikni was Chenab and Vitasta was Jhelum.
The majority of the scholars believe that Sindhu & Saraswati (located in Rajasthan) were the most popular and sacred rivers of that era. Some scholars are of the opinion that the hymns in praise of the Saraswati are probably some of the oldest, composed more than 8000 years ago. The 5 rivers Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Vitasta, Vipas all were tributaries of Sindhu River. Together with Sarasawti and Sindhu, these 5 rivers constituted the Sapta Sindhu.
However saraswati has been mentioned as saptasvasa, which means she with 7 sisters. So, This further leads to a group of 8 Rivers.


With Which Countries India Has a Free Trade Agreement ?

ASEAN:
Free Trade Agreement negotiations with ASEAN started in 2002, and came into force from January 1, 2009.

India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement:
India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of India and the President of Sri Lanka on 28 December 1999.

Thailand & Malaysia:
India has a separate Free Trade Agreement with Thailand and Malaysia other than the India-ASEAN FTA.

CEPA with Singapore and South Korea:
India and South Korea had signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement in August 2009. This was the second CEPA signed by India, the other being with Singapore. This was also India’s first bilateral trade agreement with an OECD country.

PTA:
Apart from the above, India has PTA (Preferential Trade Agreements with) Chile, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal & MERCOSUR
SAFTA:
The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) came into force from 1st January, 2006. India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are categorized as Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal are categorized as Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS). Afghanistan which became the eighth member of SAARC during the 14th SAARC Summit held on 3-4 April 2007 in New Delhi is due to become a party to the SAFTA Agreement as an LDC member.

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