KV Baramulla Library

Icon

Library Media Centre

Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta Sindhu?



Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta sindhu ?

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.
Scholars are not of same opinion on the names and identity of the seven rivers of Sapta sindhu. Most of the scholars agree that the heartland of Rigvedic Aryans was modern Afghanistan, Punjab (Pakistan & India), Haryana & Rajasthan. Further, Kubha River (Kabul), Suwastu (Swat) Kramu (Kurram) & Gomati (Gomal) Rivers have also got place in texts. The Ganga & Yamuna which were mentioned in later Vedic texts indicated the eastern boundary of the Sapta Saindhava Region.
There is a verse in Nadistuti sukta of Rigveda , hymn of praise of rivers which mentions the following 10 rivers: Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Marudvrdha , Vitasta , Arjikiya , Susoma. The Shutudri was Sutlej, Parushni was Ravi, Asikni was Chenab and Vitasta was Jhelum.
The majority of the scholars believe that Sindhu & Saraswati (located in Rajasthan) were the most popular and sacred rivers of that era. Some scholars are of the opinion that the hymns in praise of the Saraswati are probably some of the oldest, composed more than 8000 years ago. The 5 rivers Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Vitasta, Vipas all were tributaries of Sindhu River. Together with Sarasawti and Sindhu, these 5 rivers constituted the Sapta Sindhu.
However saraswati has been mentioned as saptasvasa, which means she with 7 sisters. So, This further leads to a group of 8 Rivers.


With Which Countries India Has a Free Trade Agreement ?

ASEAN:
Free Trade Agreement negotiations with ASEAN started in 2002, and came into force from January 1, 2009.

India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement:
India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of India and the President of Sri Lanka on 28 December 1999.

Thailand & Malaysia:
India has a separate Free Trade Agreement with Thailand and Malaysia other than the India-ASEAN FTA.

CEPA with Singapore and South Korea:
India and South Korea had signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement in August 2009. This was the second CEPA signed by India, the other being with Singapore. This was also India’s first bilateral trade agreement with an OECD country.

PTA:
Apart from the above, India has PTA (Preferential Trade Agreements with) Chile, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal & MERCOSUR
SAFTA:
The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) came into force from 1st January, 2006. India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are categorized as Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal are categorized as Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS). Afghanistan which became the eighth member of SAARC during the 14th SAARC Summit held on 3-4 April 2007 in New Delhi is due to become a party to the SAFTA Agreement as an LDC member.

Filed under: General Knowledge, Uncategorized, , ,

You are the Visitor, Number

  • 431,024

RSS Quotes of the Day

  • Ellen DeGeneres
    "The only thing that scares me more than space aliens is the idea that there aren't any space aliens. We can't be the best that creation has to offer. I pray we're not all there is. If so, we're in big trouble."
  • Howard Dietz
    "I don't like composers who think. It gets in the way of their plagiarism."

Calendar

April 2010
M T W T F S S
« Mar   May »
 1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930  

Alert!!!

CBSE & NCERT Sample Q.papers, HOTS study materials, Question Banks Click the "Download:CBSE,NCERT Sample Papers,NCF" link in the category section below on this sidebar

RSS Tell ME Why-Facts

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS History On This Day

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS DiscoveryNews-Top-Stories

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS Article of The Week

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.

RSS Books News,Rviews and Authors Interviews

  • A northern powerhouse really is coming – in publishing
    How can publishers reflect the diversity of modern Britain? Follow the independents and move northWhen it comes to the economy, the government’s recently rebooted northern powerhouse may only be smoke and mirrors, but when it comes to the arts, the energy and drive in the region is palpable. Just look at Sheffield’s S1 Artspace or Manchester’s the Factory or […]
  • Google swallows 11,000 novels to improve AI's conversation
    As writers learn that tech giant has processed their work without permission, the Authors Guild condemns ‘blatantly commercial use of expressive authorship’When the writer Rebecca Forster first heard how Google was using her work, it felt like she was trapped in a science fiction novel. “Is this any different than someone using one of my books to start a fir […]
  • The Bone Readers by Jacob Ross review – into a Caribbean island’s sordid underbelly
    A young police officer searches for his missing mother in a crime thriller from a highly original writerWhen the Jamaican writer Marlon James won the Man Booker prize last year with A Brief History of Seven Killings he became internationally famous, yet his earlier two novels had marked him out as a writer of great originality and talent.Jacob Ross is anothe […]
  • ‘Oh Excellent Air Bag!’ review – two centuries of laughing gas
    This wonderful collection of writings on nitrous oxide features carnivals, dentists’ chairs, Humphry Davy in ecstasy and William James talking nonsense“It made me dance about the laboratory like a madman,” said Humphry Davy in 1799, after having inhaled from an oiled green air bag his first lungful of nitrous oxide, later known as laughing gas, and used in d […]
  • Sebastian Faulks webchat – post your questions now
    The journalist turned bestselling author will join us to answer your questions in a live webchat from 1pm on Wednesday 28 September 5.01pm BST With his tales of romance, duty and war, Sebastian Faulks has amassed fans of both literary fiction and blockbuster historical epics. Breaking through with Birdsong in 1993 following a successful career in journalism […]

Periodicals Articles Alert

Bachhon ko Nishulk Aur Anivaarya Shiksha Ka adhikaar Adhiniyam 2009, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1823-1825 ; E-Kachara Prabandhan: Ek Chunauti Aur Upaye, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1832-1834; Vitamin Truths & lies,Reader Digest,May2010,P.52-56; Surface Area and Volume, Education Trend,May210,P.65 ; Metals and Non Metals, Education Trend,May210,P.77; The rise of Nationalism in Europe, Education Trend,May210,P.91; Linear Equations in two variables, Education Today,May2010,P.5-15,Federalism, Sectors of Indian Economy and Water Resources Education Today,May2010,P.16-29 ; Acids, Bases and Salts, Education Today,May2010,P.30; Prehistoric Creatures,Tell Me Why,May2010; Disappearing Herbs,Out Look,May24,2010,P.56

Periodicals Arrival in the Library

%d bloggers like this: