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2. Which of the following companies has recently acquired Flag telecom, USA?
Ans: Reliance Infocomm
3. Who is Chairman of the Planning Commission of India?
Ans: Dr. Manmohan Singh
4. Who is the Chairman of Wipro Industries?
Ans: Azim H. Premji
5. What was the venue of the last ASEAN meeting?
Ans: Vientiane in Laos in November 2004
6. Where is the headquarters of the European Union?
Ans: Brussels
7. Sunil Bharti Mittal is the CMD of…
Ans: Bharti Enterprises
8. VSNL has recently acquired TYCO which belongs to
Ans: USA
9. The automobile giant Hyundai hails from
Ans: South Korea
10. Ratan Tata Commission is meant for
Ans: Investment
11. What was the focus of the Ninth Five-year plan?
Ans: Agriculture and rural development along with employment generation and poverty eradication.
12. What was the duration for India’s Tenth Five-year plan?
Ans: From 2002-07
13. Microsoft has recently established its largest development centre in which of the following city?
Ans: Hyderabad
14. Rupee is not a currency of…
Ans: Bangladesh
15. The term sweated labour means
Ans: Underpaid, cheap labour
16. The term ‘disguised employment’ is found mainly in
Ans: Agricultural sector
17. The defunct Dabhol Power Plant is located in…
Ans: Maharashtra

Filed under: General Knowledge Quiz Series this week, ,

Current Affairs:-Events / Happenings / Observances/Appointments:

Current affaires May3,2010

Events, Happenings & Observances:
World Press Freedom Day 2010
3 May has been declared by the United Nations General Assembly as World Press Freedom Day. Read Here

National Updates:
New Education Bills moved in Lok Sabha
To regulate the education system and pave the way for foreign universities, 4 bills have been moved in the Lok Sabha.

  1. Foreign Education Institutions (Regulation of Entry And Operations) Bill, 2010: This bill aims to allow foreign institutions set up campuses in India. The bill is expected to facilitate quality education in India itself and reduce the flow of Indian students abroad.
  2. National Accreditation Regulatory Authority Bill: This bill seeks to provide framework for an umbrella body overseeing the quality of education in the country. National Accreditation Regulatory Authority Bill furthers the way for an overall regulatory authority. The function of the authority shall be to promote the development and regulate the process of accreditation of higher education institutions and to register and regulate the working of accreditation agencies.
  3. Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Education Institutions Bill: Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Education Institutions Bill, forbids charging of any fee other than that declared by an institution in its prospectus, or any fee taken without giving proper receipt. This clips the wings of the medial institutions charging capitation fee and donations.
  4. Education Tribunals bill: Any disputes related to educational institutions will be heard in state or national level education tribunals to be set up as per the proposed Education Tribunals bill.

Largest Buyer of India’s Iron Ore: China

  1. During 2006-07 China bought 80.16 MT of Indian iron ore, which went upto 91.98 MT in 2007-08 and 97.85 MT in 2008-09. China is the largest buyer of India’s Iron Ore.
  2. India’s total iron ore production during 2006-07 was placed at 187.70 Million Tonnes and the export during that period stood at 93.79 MT valued at Rs 18,836 crores. Iron ore production went upto 206.45 MT during 2007-08 and the export also went up to 104.27 MT which was valued at Rs 34,100 crores. The iron ore production further improved to 215.44 MT during 2008-09 and export reached 105.87 MT valued at Rs 34,036 crores. (noted from a reply of Anand Sharma, Commerce Minister in Lok Sabha)

Tamilnadu : Annual Plan
The annual plan for Tamilnadu has been fixed at Rs. 20068 crores including additional Central assistance of Rs.150 crores provided for projects of special interest to the State.

On Maulana Azad National Fellowship in 11th Plan:
Maulana Azad National Fellowship is a central sector scheme for minority students and being implemented through University Grants Commission. It provides for 756 fellowships for M.Phil/Ph.D students per year. The financial layout is Rs. 92.71 crores during the 11th Five Year Plan

Projections of Renewable / alternative Energy Sources in India’s Energy Mix:
As per the projections of Integrated Energy Policy Report of the Planning Commission , the alternative/renewable energy sources may account for 5 to 6 per cent of India’s energy mix by 2031-32.

Energy Conservation Fund
To promote the efficient use of energy and its conservation within the State. the State Energy Conservation Fund (SECF) is required to be constituted by each State under Section 16 of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001. Read Here

On 11th Plan Target of Hydro Power Generation
The 11th plan target for hydro capacity addition was 15,627 MW, consisting of 8,654 MW in Central Sector, 3,482 MW in State Sector and 3,491 MW in Private Sector. Out of this the capacity addition of 8,237 MW is likely to be achieved with a high level of certainty as per the government. Out of the above, a capacity of 3,431 MW has been commissioned so far and balance capacity is under various stages of construction.

On Fund Raising Plans of NTPC:
The National Thermal Power corporation has plans to borrow Rs.12,818 crore for its capacity addition programme during the financial year 2010-11 comprising a Rs.9,859.74 crores from domestic sources and the balance Rs.2,958.26 crores from international sources.

Number of protected Areas in India
India has 661 Protected Areas, including 100 National Parks, 514 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 43 Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves. Read here
On Lockheed Martin Deal
Lockheed Martin or C-130J Super Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. It is the updated version of Lockheed C-130 Hercules. India has procured 6 C-130J – 30 transport aircraft from US Government during the last 3 years. Apart from this India has also procured 12 Dornier aircrafts. They all procured for transportation purpose.
The six C-13-J aircraft will be inducted by 2011-12.

India’s Biosphere Reserves:
India has designated 16 Biosphere Reserves. Read Here

Regional Committees for Uniformity in Minimum Wages
Government of India has set up five Regional Committees in order to reduce the regional disparities in the minimum wages of same or similar scheduled employments Read Here

What is National Floor Level Minimum Wage ?
National Floor Level Minimum Wage was mooted with an objective to have a uniform wage structure and to reduce the disparity in minimum wages across the country. he NFLMW per day has been revised from time to time primarily taking into account the increase in the Consumer Price Index Number for Industrial Workers, which stands at Rs.100/- per day with effect
from 01.11.2009.

RGSEAG or Rajiv Gandhi scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls is also known as SABLA. This scheme got birth by merging two schemes viz. Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) and the Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG). SABLA aims to empowering adolescent girls (11-18 years) by improving their nutritional and health status, upgrading various skills like home skills, life skills and vocational skills etc. and equipping them on family welfare, health, hygiene, information and guidance on existing public services. The allocation in Union Budget 2010-11 has been kept Rs. 1000 Crores for SABLA scheme.

2010 Kentucky Derby
Super Saver , a thoroughbred racing horse has won the race with Calvin Borel as jockey. The race took place on May 1, 2010. The race was sponsored by Yum! Brands.

World Updates
Bilout Package for Greece:
The European Union and the International Monetary Fund agree to a bailout package for Greece that will provide approximately €120 billion to end the sovereign debt crisis in that country.

Current affaires May2,2010

Events / Happenings & Observances:
World Laughter Day
World Laughter Day is celebrated on the first Sunday in May all over the world since 1998 when the first celebration was held on January 11, 1998, in Mumbai. The event was launched by Dr. Madan Kataria, founder of the worldwide Laughter Yoga movement. Laughter Yoga movement has over 6000 Laughter Clubs worldwide on all 5 continents.

National Updates:
Prime Minister on legal Reforms:
National consultation for second generation reforms in legal education was inaugurated in New Delhi. Here is what our PM says on legal reforms:

  1. Prime Minister emphasizes that national legal education system should be especially sensitive to the needs of the marginalized sections of the society like women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and the poor.
  2. Not only should these sections be adequately represented among law students, the legal education should also inculcate sensitivity towards the special needs of the under-privileged.
  3. PM stresses need for national uniform course module for legal education in the country. There is an urgent need for reforming and improving the national legal education system to meet the needs of the growing economy.

Kerala: Aaswasa Kiranam
Kerala Government announces a new pension scheme named ”Aaswasa Kiranam” meant for poor and bed-ridden patients.

Gujarat: Asiatic Lion Population:
The only home of the Asiatic Lion (biological name: Panthera leo persica) or Indian Lion in the world is the Gir Forest of Gujarat. Recently Gujarat State Government has carried out Asiatic Lion census 2010. Read Here

Manipur: Entry of T. Muivah
Manipur state government decides to prevent the entry of NSCN-IM General Secretary T. Muivah in the state as his visit may lead to communal disharmony. Muivah whose insurgent group NSCN-IM has been holding peace talks with Centre for more than ten years was to visit his hometown in Somdal in Manipur’s Ukhrul district from May 3 to 10.

On New head of National Human Rights Commission
K G Balakrishnan the outgoing Chief Justice of India may be the head of National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). The post of lying vacant since June 2009, when Rajendra Babu Retired. If Justice K G Balakrishnan becomes the new head of NHRC, he will be the first dalit to be so. He is also first Dalit Chief Justice of India.

Eligibility to become head of NHRC: Former Chief Justice of India with less than 70 years of age.

Madhuri Gupta Case
Madhuri Gupta worked as a second secretary for the Indian High Commission, was arrested on April 23 in New Delhi in the presence of Ministry of External Affairs officials on charges of passing on important information to Pakistan. She came under the scanner a few months ago because of her “extra-ordinary” interest in areas beyond her role, and was called to Delhi last month on the pretext of preparing for the SAARC summit. She has been booked under the Official Secrets Act. She has charges against her for spying for Pakistan’s ISI.

On National Green Tribunal:
National Green Tribunal will be the first judicial body to deal exclusively with environmental laws. It will come in existence in next two months or so as the Lok Sabha has passed the National Green tribunal Bill. The main bench of the Tribunal will be in Bhopal.

Business & Economy:
CII Survey on India’s Growth:
The latest CII Survey has pegged Indian Economy’s growth to be around 7.5 – 8.5%. This has been revealed in the CII Business Outlook Survey based upon a response of 458 companies.

Forbes’ 500 Top Paid CEO’s of the biggest American companies
3 people from the Indian Origin have featured in the latest Forbes’ 500 Top Paid CEO’s. The list has been topped by H Lawrence Culp Jr. President, CEO & Director of Danaher Corporation, a large global company headquartered in Washington, D.C.with business in fields of design, manufacture, and marketing of industrial and consumer products.

The Indians featured in the List are:

  • 93rd Position: Indra Nooyi: Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of PepsiCo Incorporated (USD 10.66 million)
  • 96th Position: Surya N Mohapatra , CEO of Quest Diagnostics (USD 10.29 million)
  • 425th Position: Shantanu Narayen, CEO of Adobe Systems (USD 1.88 million)

India Design Council has an ambitious plan to introduce an I-Mark, that will label and recognize good design (in terms of creativity, ethics, sustainability, environment-friendliness and competitiveness) in India .

Current affairs May1,2010

Yale World Fellow 2010: Subhashini Chandran
Subhashini Chandran,CEO of the Woodbriar Group and the Managing Director of the Tea Estates India Ltd, has been named of one the 15 Yale World Fellows for 2010.UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations – Atul Khare
Atul Khare a former IFS officer has been appointed by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon as Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations.

Events / Happenings & Observances:
Gujarat & Maharastra: Golden Jubilee Celebrations
Gujarat’s Chief Minister Narendra Modi kicks off State’s Golden Jubilee celebrations. he also lays a foundation stone of Mahatma Mandir at Gandhi Nagar. Mahatma mandir is being built at the estimated cost of Rs.100 crore. It will be spread over 34 acres and will have a business centre, exhibition halls, a memorial and garden on Gandhi and a suspension bridge in memory of the Dandi march.

Fact Box: Gujarat came into existence on May1, 1960. After India’s independence, the former princely states of Gujarat were grouped in Saurastra, Kathiawad and Bombay State. in 1956 Bombay state was enlarged and Kutch, Surastra, some parts of Hyderabad and some parts of Madhya Pradesh were included in it. Since the new state had mostly the Gujarati speaking people, there were agitations. On linguistic lines Bombay state was split into new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmadabad; the capital was moved to Gandhi nagar in 1970.

The main Function of Maharastra Golden Jubilee takes place in Shivaji Park, Mumbai & Governor K. Sankaranarayanan takes salute at a police parade. On 50th Maharashtra Foundation Day, people of Maharastra also paid homage to 105 martyrs who laid down their lives for ‘Samyukta (United) Maharashtra’.International Labor Day:
International Labor Day or International Workers’ Day or May Day is observed by working people worldwide and their labor unions on May 1 every year. The event commemorates the Haymarket Massacre in Chicago in 1886, when Chicago police fired on workers during a general strike for the eight hour day. In India, first May Day celebration in India was organized in Madras by the Labor Kisan Party of Hindustan on May 1, 1923.

On the occasion of International Labor Day 2010, the Chhattisgarh government in India announced a Rs.10 lakh accident insurance scheme for the state’s more than three lakh industrial workers.

National Updates:
India’s new chief Justice: Justice Sarosh Homi Kapadia
Justice Sarosh Homi Kapadia, the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court has been appointed as the next Chief Justice of India. He will take over from incumbent Chief Justice K G Balakrishnan on the 12th of June 2010.National Green Tribunal (NGT) Bill Passed:
National Green Tribunal (NGT) Bill which paves the way for the establishment of a tribunal known as National Green Tribunal (NGT) for environmental clearance of development projects and providing relief and compensation to people affected by natural calamities has been passed by the Lok Sabha .

Under the legislation, the Central Pollution Control Board will approach NGT on behalf of affected persons for grant of relief or compensation or settlement of disputes. The NGT is meant to ensure expeditious disposal of cases on environmental protection, conservation of forests and other natural resources, thereby strengthening environmental adjudication and settlement of disputes.

Plantation Labor (Amendment) Bill Passed:
Plantation Labor (Amendment) Bill 2010 has been passed in Rajya Sabha. This bill seeks to empower the Centre to prohibit, restrict and regulate the employment of women and adolescents engaged in handling hazardous chemicals in the plantation industry.

Hike in Aviation Turbine Fuel Rates:
State-owned oil retailers raised jet fuel, or Aviation Turbine Fuel, ATF prices, by 273 rupees per kilolitre. This is the fifth straight increase since March.

International Updates:

37th member of the European Patent Organization – Albania
The European Patent Organization was created in 1977 to grant patents in Europe under the European Patent Convention (EPC) of 1973. Its headquarters are at Munich, Germany and has 36 members. Albania joins as 37th member on May 1, 2010.Belgium: Another country to ban Burqua:
29 April 2010, the lower house of parliament in Belgium has passed a bill banning any clothing that would obscure the identity of the wearer in places like parks and in the street. The proposal was passed nem con (Nemine Contradicente which means without contradiction) and now goes to the Senate.

France was among the first countries to ban Burqua in French public schools in 2004.

Latest Country to ratify Nuclear Test Ban Treaty – Indonesia
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but it has not yet entered into force. The treaty has been signed by 182 countries.

Why the treaty not came in force?
Total 182 countries have signed the treaty out of which 151 have ratified by adopting national laws to implement the treaty. However, the treaty demands ratification by all 44 countries of the world which have Nuclear Technology. 9 countries have not ratified. These 9 countries are Indonesia, China, North Korea, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and the US.

Indonesia has now taken a decision to ratify the CTBT very soon. This statement has been made by Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa in the Indonesian parliament (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat).

4 Development Projects in Bhutan:
Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh launches four development projects in Bhutan. The projects were inaugurated by the Prime Minister include two in the Hydro-power sector. The foundation stones of Mangdechhu Hydro project with a total capacity of 720 megawatts and the Punatsangchhu-two Hydro power project with a capacity of 1000 Megawatt to be completed in Seven years were laid. Both the projects will be implemented under the Inter-governmental Authority model with 70 percent loan and 30 percent grant by the government of India. Prime Minister also launched a total solutions project related to IT for making half of Bhutan’s population computer literate.

India Japan MOU on Eco Friendly Cities:
India and Japan sign four memorandum of understanding for building future cities of India. The eco friendly cities will be built in the Delhi Mumbai industrial corridor, at a cost 90 billion dollars. This is going to be the largest ever project in the world, will be completed within nine years. This comes under the Smart Community Initiative of Japan.

People in News:

Who is Ranjan Daimary?
Ranjan Daimary is the founder of National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) , more commonly known as Bodo Security Force. Ranjan Daimary has been arrested and detained by Indian authorities. he was handed over to BSF in Meghalaya, from where he was taken to Assam.

Fact Box: NDBF
The NDBF is a terrorist outfit which seeks to obtain a sovereign Bodoland for the Bodo people in Assam. The ‘Bodo Security Force’ was established on October 3, 1986, and on November 25, 1994, the outfit rechristened its name to NDFB. It had entered into a ceasefire agreement with the government on May 25, 2005. In December 2008, the NDFB split into warring groups – the anti-talks faction, led by Daimary, and the pro-talks faction led by Sungthagra, alias, Dhirn Boro

Note: National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM) is currently on peace talks with the Centre.

Filed under: Current Affairs:-Events / Happenings / Observances/Appointments:, , , , , , , ,

Latest General Knowledge

Idea of East Asia Summit:
The idea was mooted in 1991 by then Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad. It provides India the forum to carve out for itself a larger East Asian strategic presence and taking forward our vision for the future. Thrust areas of EAS include (i)
energy, Environment, Climate Change & Sustainable Development, (ii) Education, (iii) Finance, (iv) Natural Disaster Mitigation and (v) Avian Influenza. Four summits of EAS have been held so far. First summit was held in Kua Lalumpur in December 2005.”

India ASEAN Trade:
The trade has grown from US$ 2.4 billion in 1990 to US$ 44.66 billion in 2008-09 and the targets to make it reach US$ 70 billion within next two years (by 2012)

Universal Service Obligation Fund
Indian Telegraph (Amendment) Act, 2003 gave the statutory status to the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) and it was passed in December 2003

Types of Some Missiles in India
Agni is family of Medium to Intercontinental range ballistic missiles, Prithvi is tactical surface-to-surface, short-range ballistic missile (SRBM), Akash is medium range surface-to-air missile, Nag is a third generation“Fire-and-forget“ anti-tank missile

Galton Whistle:
Human can listen only the frequencies below 20 kHz. However animals like dogs, cats, dolphins, bats, and mice can listen above this limit. This principle was used by Galton who produced the ultrasonic waves by blowing a whistle. For human these whistle appears silent, while dogs and cats can listen it. It is used in training of dogs and cats.

Composition of NHRC
Chairperson must have been a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; one Member who is or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court; one Member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court; two Members to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights, Chairperson of the National Commission for Minorities, and the National Commission for Women shall be deemed to be Members of the Commission (The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993)
The appointment committee consists of Prime Minister as Chairperson, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Home Minister, leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, leader of opposition in Rajya Sabha & Deputy chairman of Rajya Sabha.

Subjects of some amendments:
55th : statehood to Arunachal Pradesh, 56th: setting up new state of Goa and separation of Daman & Diu , 57th : special arrangements with regard to reservation for scheduled tribes in NE states Arunachal, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya. Article 332 amended for this reason, 58th: authorizes president to publish an authoritative translation of constitution, 59th : empowered the government to impose emergency in Punjab

Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar’s comment on Indian Febderation:
the use of the word Union is deliberate. The Drafting Committee wanted to make it clear that though India was to be a federation, the federation was not a result of an agreement by the States to join in the federation and that the federation not being the result of an agreement no state has a right to secede from it. Though the country and the people may be divided into different states for convenience of administration the whole country is one integral whole, its people a single people living under a single imperium derived from a single source – Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar

Some Articles related to Panchayats:
“243A. Gram Sabha
243B. Constitution of Panchayats.
243C. Composition of panchayats.
243D. Reservation of seats.
243E. Duration of Panchayats etc”

Principal Organs of United Nations:
Formerly UN had six principal active organs. UN Trusteeship Council suspended its operations in 1994. The five organs are:
UN General Assembly
UN Security Council
UN Economic and Social Council
UN Secretariat
International Court of Justice

Word Heritage Site in Two States:
Kalka is in Panchkula Haryana and Shimla in Himachal Pradesh. Kalka Shimla Railway spreads in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, some other sites: Valley of Flowers National Park is located in Uttarakhand, Mountain Railways of India are in Darjeeling, Sundarbans National Park isn West Bengal and Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is in Gujarat.

NDTV and Ministry of Tourism 7 wonders of India:
1.Sun Temple, Konark
3.Jaisalmer Fort
4.Red Fort
5.Nalanda University
6.Dholavira Site
7.Meenakshi Temple”

Oldest Functionary Parliamentary institution
Please note that Althing of Iceland is the oldest functioning parliamentary institution in the world established in 930 AD

Top 5 Languages of India by speakers strength:
1–Hindi 422,048,642 Percentage of Total : 41.03
2–Bengali 83,369,769 Percentage of Total : 8.11
3–Telugu 74,002,856 Percentage of Total : 7.19
4–Marathi 71,936,894 Percentage of Total : 6.99
5–Tamil 60,793,814 Percentage of Total : 5.91
6–Urdu 51,536,111 Percentage of Total : 5.01
(source Census 2001)

Least Spoken Languages:
Least spoken language is Sanskrit (only few people in following places speak Sanskrit: Mattur in Karnataka,Jhiri (Rajgadh) in Madhya Pradesh, Ganoda (Banswada) in Rajasthan, Bawali (Bagapat) in Uttar Pradesh , Mohad (Narasinhpur) in Madhya Pradesh. Bodo is next to Sanskrit and spoken by 1,350,478 people.”

Owners of some newspapers in India:
The Times of India, ET : Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.
Dainik Bhaskar : DB Crop Ltd.
Dainik Jagran : Jagaran Prakashan Ltd.
Malayala Manorama : Malayala Manorama Group
Eenadu : Ramoji Group.
Ananda Bazar Patrika : Ananda Publishers
Hindustan Times: HT Media Ltd
Sakshi : Y.S. Jagan Mohan Reddy
Mathrubhumi : The Mathrubhumi Group
Gujarat Samachar : Lok Prakashan Ltd.
Dinakaran : SUN TV
The Telegraph: Ananda Publishers
Prajavani, Deccan Herald : The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited
New Indian Express : Express Publications Ltd.
The Statesman: The Statesman Ltd.
The Hindu Business Line: Kasturi & Sons Ltd.
Business Standard: Business Standard Ltd. (BSL)

Location of ICAO & IATA:
International Civil Aviation Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations, located Montreal, Quebec, Canada, established 1947, headquarters Montreal Canada, Current Head: Raymond Benjamin. Please note that IATA ( International Air Transport Association) is also located in Montreal.

Some points from latest SIPRI data March 2010
“Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) March 2010
1. Largest arms supplier of the world: USA (30% market share)
2. Growth of global arms sale 92005-2009) = 22%
3. largest importer of American weapons : South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and Israel.
4. China`s share in Global Defense sales: 9%
5. India`s sale in Global Defense Sales: 7%
6. China`s 89% import originated from Russia
7. India`s 77% import from Russia, UK supplied 8% and Israel 5% (conventional defense equipment)

Work field of UNFPA:
UNFPA supports programs in140 countries in four areas, the Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the sub-Saharan Africa

Father of India Print Media:
James Augustus Hickey started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise or the Bengal Gazette in January, 1780.

October Revolution:
Another name of Russian Revolution or part of Russian Revolution of 1917also known as October coup or the Uprising of 25th.

Filed under: General Knowledge, , , , , , , , ,

Worlds Highest Mountain Peaks

Worlds Highest Mountain Peaks

Country, Peaks,  Height in metre

Everest (Himalaya-Nepal/Tibet)

Godwin Austen (Karakoram-India)

Kanchenjunga (Himalaya India / Nepal)

Lhotse (Himalaya-Nepal-China)

Makalu (Himalaya-Nepal)

Dhaulagiri (Himalaya-Nepal)

Nanga Parvat (Himalaya-Nepal)

Gasherbrum (Karakoram-Tibet)

Gosainthan (Himalaya-Tibet)

Nanda Devi (Himalaya-India)

South America
Aconcagua (Andes-Argentina)

North America
McKinley (Alaska-USA)

Kilimanjaro (Solitary-Tanzania)

Elborus (Caucasus-CIS)

Mont Blanc (Alp-France)

Vinson Massif

Caestensz (Nassau Range-New Guinea)

Filed under: Geography: general Knowledge, ,

English Corner-RBI Grade b- Officers Recruitment Exam

English Corner-RBI Grade b- Officers Recruitment Exam

May 5th, 2010 by admin Leave a reply »

Reserve Bank of India Services Board, Mumbai
July 2004 Question Paper

Direction (Qs. 1 to 5) :    Which of the phrases (1), (2), (3)
and (4) given below each sentence should replace the phrase
printed in bold in the given sentence to make it
grammatically correct?  If the sentence is correct as it is
and no correction is required, then mark your answer as (5) :
1.    Ultimately he received the honour he deserve.
(1)    Gained the honour he deserve
(2)    Received the honour he deserves
(3)    Received the honour he deserved
(4)    Bags the honour he deserve
(5)    No correction required
Ans:    ( 3 )    Received the honour he deserved

2.    I am totally opposite in the statement of some of our
(1)    Totally oppose to the
(2)    Absolutely oppose by the
(3)    Totally opposed to the
(4)    Completely opposed in the
(5)    No correction required
Ans:    ( 3 )    Totally opposed to the

3.    Gayatri turned down the job offer to accommodate her friend.
(1)    Job offered in accommodate
(2)    Job offers for accommodate
(3)    Job offer to accommodating
(4)    Job offer in accommodate
(5)    No correction required
Ans:    ( 5 )    No correction required

4.    She was informed that everyone of them are aware of the fact.
(1)    Were aware of
(2)    Are aware of
(3)    Was aware of
(4)    Is aware of
(5)    No correction required
Ans:    ( 3 )    Was aware of

5.    She has being venturing into areas which she had always
avoided in the past.
(1)    Has been venturing into
(2)    Has venturing into
(3)    Would venturing into
(4)    Had venturing into
(5)    No correction required
Ans:    ( 1 )    Has been venturing into

Directions (Qs. 6 to 10) :    Read each sentence to find out
whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in
it.   The error, if any, will be in one part of the
sentence.  The number of that part will be your answer.  If
there is no error (ignore errors of punctuation, if any),
then your answer will be (5).
6.    They never thought (1) / that Joshi is (2) / oldest than
the other (3) / Professors in the Faculty. (4) / No error (5)
Ans:    ( 3 )

7.    Taken into consideration (1) / the advice of his (2) /
colleagues he decided (3) / to stay in the Institute. (4) /
No error (5)
Ans:    ( 1 )

8.    I am likely contact (1) / you sometime in (2) / next week
to (3) / discuss with you in detail. (4) / No error (5)
Ans:    ( 1 )

9.    The police has making (1) / every effort to provide (2) /
best help and (3) / attention to each citizen. (4) / No
error (5)
Ans:    ( 1 )

10.    He cannot withdraw (1) / all his money (2) / unless he
do not (3) / give advance notice. (4) / No error (5)
Ans:    ( 3&4 )

Directions (Qs. 11 to 25) :    Read the following passage to
answer these questions given below it.  Certain words /
phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them
while answering some of the questions :
The suicide attacks by militant Palestinian groups killing
large numbers of Israeli civilians and the harsh Israeli
response, have raised the renewed hopes of peace in the
region.  It is Arafat?s leadership and authority that are
being severely tested in the latest phase of the west Asian
By accusing the Palestinian Authority (PA) of supporting
terrorism by groups, Israel hopes to put pressure on Arafat
to act.  Arafat, on the other hand, has never looked a less
powerful force than he does today.  If he acts against the
militants and elements in his own Fatah movement sympathetic
to them, he risks a Palestinian civil conflict.  But if he
chooses to do nothing, he faces erosion of his authority and
all claim to a central role in the peace process.   Whatever
he does, sections of the Palestinians will hold that he has
gone too far and Israel that he has not gone for enough.
This is, of course, why Arafat has invariably shrunk from
hard decision.  He has refrained from curbing the militant
groups, explaining his inaction as necessary to maintain
Palestinian unity.
The Palestinian leadership?s inability to improve economic
conditions for its people has been a decisive factor in the
erosion of its ability to act.  Palestinians in Gaza have
targeted the PA as being responsible for their condition.
The Militant organizations have capitalized on the PA?s
failure to establish a functioning administrative
infrastructure by setting up a parallel welfare system with
the help of the millions of dollars.   Though the
Palestinian security forces claim to have arrested more than
100 militants after the suicide bomb attacks in Israel, the
other similar militant groups remain defiant, confident of
their popular support and of the certainty that in the
ultimate analysis the PA leadership will stop short of
decisive action against them.
That the militant groups enjoy popular support in Gaza is
hardly surprising.  The Gaza Strip today resembles a vast
prison camp in which some 1.2 million Palestinians are
crammed.  Despite the Oslo Accord, 7000 Israeli settlers
still remain in 20 percent of the Gaza?s area and are
protected by heavily armed Israeli forces.  With its recent
blockade of and extensive incursion into PA controlled
territories, the Israeli government has placed the whole
civil society in Palestine under siege.  Over 450 NGOs,
eight universities and numerous other educational, civic,
social, developmental and health institutions have had their
work impeded and their vital services to the population
blocked.  An international conference on Israel?s treatment
of human rights in West Bank and Gaza, attended by
signatories to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, that has opened
in Switzerland overriding Israeli and American protests, is
expected to censor Israel for its treatment of civilians in
the Palestinian territories.
Arafat?s standing among Palestinians rests on the authority
conferred on the PA by the international community to
represent and speak for the Palestinians.  Even the major
militant group has so far never openly challenged Arafat?s
leadership.  Israel?s latest vicious attacks directed
against the PA and Arafat present the international
community with the danger that this precarious balance of
power in the Palestinian community may be destroyed.
Continuance of the Israeli attacks can only further
radicalize and harden the attitudes of ordinary
Palestinians.  On the other hand, Israeli moves to freeze
further expansion of Jewish settlements in the West Bank and
Gaza and, as soon as security conditions permit it, ease the
economic blockade of Palestinian towns?however remote such
measures appear just now?alone can restore the authority of
the PA and give it a chance to get a grip on Palestinian
11.    Which of the following factors have raised the hope for
peace in West Asia?
A.  Killings of Israeli civilians
B.  Harsh response of Israelites
C.  Revocation of Oslo Accord
(1)    Only A and C
(2)    Only B and C
(3)    Both A and B
(4)    Either A or B
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 3 )    Both A and B

12.    Which of the following explains the lack of action on
the part of Palestinian leader?
(1)    He fears the army action against him
(2)    This according to him will fasten peace process
(3)    He feels that this step will keep Palestinians united
(4)    He is seriously worried about the degeneration of his
power base
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 4 )    He is seriously worried about the degeneration
of his power base

13.    What is ultimate analysis of other similar militant groups?
(1)    The PA leadership will only act if a definite forceful
action is taken on the PA
(2)    The suicidal attacks will only aggravate the situation
(3)    The PA leadership should be changed
(4)    The action on the Palestinians was justified
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 5 )    None of these

14.    Which of the following words is just opposite in meaning
to the word impeded as used in the passage?
(1)    Hindered
(2)    Facilitated
(3)    Felicitated
(4)    Stopped
(5)    Courage
Ans:    ( 1 )    Hindered

15.    What does the word overriding mean as used in the passage?
(1)    Notwithstanding
(2)    Concurring
(3)    Welcoming
(4)    Criticizing
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 1 )    Notwithstanding

16.    Which of the following best describes the meaning of the
word challenged as used in the passage?
(1)    Questioned
(2)    Accepted
(3)    Attacked
(4)    Scared
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 1 )    Questioned

17.    Which of the following is the most similar word as
accusing as used in the passage?
(1)    Abusing
(2)    Blaming
(3)    Charging
(4)    Responding
(5)    Praising
Ans:    ( 2 )    Blaming

18.    Which of the following is the expected outcome of
International Conference which is in progress in Switzerland?
(1)    To revoke 1949 Geneva Convention
(2)    Impose censorship on propaganda of PA
(3)    To build cordial relations between Conflicting parties
(4)    To put a curb on Israel?s policies while treating
civilians in an alien territory
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 3 )    To build cordial relations between Conflicting

19.    Which of the following best explains the word vicious as
used in the passage?
(1)    Dangerous
(2)    Fatal
(3)    Reoccurring and cyclic
(4)    Cyclic but not reoccurring
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 3 )    Reoccurring and cyclic

20.    Which of the following best explains the word remote as
used in the passage?
(1)    Far away from reality
(2)    Distant
(3)    Most likely to happen
(4)    Control in someone else?s hand
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 1 )    Far away from reality

21.    Who according to the passage conferred the authority to PA?
(1)    Arafat
(2)    Israel
(3)    Militant groups
(4)    International community
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 4 )    International community

22.    Which of the following can restore the degenerating
authority of the PA?
A.  Arresting the expansion of Jewish settlements
B.  Easening the economic blockade of Palestinian towns
(1)    Only A
(2)    Only B
(3)    Either A or B
(4)    Both A and B together
(5)    Neither A or B
Ans:    ( 4 )    Both A and B together

23.    Which of the following is the most opposite in meaning
as the word shrunk as used in the passage?
(1)    Coming forward
(2)    Abdicating
(3)    Control
(4)    Expand
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 1 )    Coming forward

24.    What may be the affect of continuous Israeli attacks?
(1)    It may harness a negative attitude amongst the civil
(2)    It may destroy militancy from its basic roots
(3)    It may revitalize the weakening leadership of the PA
(4)    It may enhance militant activities
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 4 )    It may enhance militant activities

25.    What dangers are being perceived by the International
(1)    Both the nations may get destroyed if war erupts
(2)    The PA and Israel will never strike a deal
(3)    The attacks against the PA may destroy the balance of
power in Palestinians
(4)    The militancy may spread in other countries also
(5)    None of these
Ans:    ( 3 )    The attacks against the PA may destroy the
balance of power in Palestinians

Directions (Qs. 26 to 35) :    In the following passage there
are blanks, each of which has been numbered.  These numbers
are printed below the passage and against each, five words
are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately.
Find out the appropriate word in each case:
Whatever prosperity India enjoyed in the seventeenth
century disappeared when the Mughal Empire ???(26) apart.
The most immediate cause of this breakdown was the religious
intolerance, which led to the open rebellion.  It was to
???(27) these revolts that the bigot ruler spent ???(28)
years in the field, with immense armies consuming the
revenues of the country.  There were, however, more
deep-seated ???(29)   The corruption of officials and the
oppression of the masses steadily ???(30) away the empire?s
life blood.  For sometime, there had been a noticeable
deterioration in the character of the ruling class.  Wars of
succession ???(31) wiped out the leading families, and new
blood from central Asia was no ???(32) recruited for the
higher governmental posts.  Finally, the Mughal Empire was
an alien regime.  It continues to be so ???(33) Akbar?s
policy of conciliation was abandoned, and it wore itself out
trying to maintain its power ???(34) the ceaseless
opposition, only now and then overt but always present, of
the ???(35) citizens.
26.    (1)    Joined
(2)    Broke
(3)    Dashed
(4)    Banged
(5)    Became
Ans:    ( 2 )    Broke

27.    (1)    Run out
(2)    Crash
(3)    Crush
(4)    Cajole
(5)    Motivate
Ans:    ( 3 )    Crush

28.    (1)    No
(2)    Hardly
(3)    Many
(4)    Inexpensive
(5)    Most
Ans:    ( 3 )    Many

29.    (1)    Variables
(2)    Attributes
(3)    Characteristics
(4)    Causes
(5)    Affect
Ans:    ( 4 )    Causes

30.    (1)    Drained
(2)    Gone
(3)    Sucked
(4)    Released
(5)    Went
Ans:    ( 1 )    Drained

31.    (1)    Has
(2)    Have
(3)    Was
(4)    Did
(5)    Had
Ans:    ( 5 )    Had

32.    (1)    Longer
(2)    Pumped
(3)    Far
(4)    Candidate
(5)    Shorter
Ans:    ( 1 )    Longer

33.    (1)    At
(2)    Into
(3)    Over
(4)    After
(5)    Before
Ans:    ( 4 )    After

34.    (1)    Far
(2)    At
(3)    Against
(4)    Favouring
(5)    For
Ans:    ( 3 )    Against

35.    (1)    Discontented
(2)    Weeping
(3)    Ruling
(4)    Calm
(5)    Contented
Ans:    ( 1 )    Discontented

Directions (Qs. 36 to 40) :    Pick out the most effective
word/phrase from the given words to fill in the blanks to
make the sentences meaningfully complete:
36.    Tiwari?s weill-wishers went to the extreme to _____ his
business reputation.
(1)    Speak
(2)    Enhance
(3)    Cajole
(4)    Provoke
(5)    Advocate
Ans:    ( 2 )    Enhance

37.    A group of junior college boys _____ the highest peak of
the Shivalik range of the Himalayas.
(1)    Scaled
(2)    Walked
(3)    Climb up
(4)    Avoided
(5)    Won
Ans:    ( 1 )    Scaled

38.    A special programme to raise the standard of living of
the village folks has been _____ by the Government.
(1)    Affixed
(2)    Stalled
(3)    Glued
(4)    Launched
(5)    Propose
Ans:    ( 4 )    Launched

39.    A herd of elephants _____ ready to attack the lion.
(1)    Were
(2)    Is
(3)    Was
(4)    Are
(5)    Has been
Ans:    ( 2 )    Is

40.    It is not possible this year to run this company with so
many employees, without increasing the _____ of deficit.
(1)    Loss
(2)    Altitude
(3)    Gain
(4)    Magnitude
(5)    Extend
Ans:    ( 4 )    Magnitude

Filed under: English Corner, ,

Know About Indian States

Tamil Nadu

Particulars Description
Area 1,30,058 sq. km
Population 62,405,679
Capital Chennai
Principal Languages Tamil

History and Geography

The State of Tamil Nadu has a hoary antiquity. Though early sangam classics throw historical references, we pass to recorded history only from the Pallavas.

The southern states of India were under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century A.D. They were the originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita, in whose reign the later Cholas under Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the end of the 11th century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountcy over South India.

Muslims gradually strengthened their position, which led to the establishment of the Bahamani Sultanate, by the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, the Vijayanagar Kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India, and at the close of the century, Vijayanagar became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans.

Even during the period of the tumultuous confusion that followed the battle of Talikota, European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’. East India Company, which had established its factory at Masulipatnam (now in Andhra Pradesh) in 1611, gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers. Tamil Nadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency, which covered the bulk of the southern peninsula in 1901. The composite Madras State was later reorganised, and the present Tamil Nadu was formed.

Tamil Nadu is bounded on north by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, on the west by Kerala, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the south by the Indian Ocean.


Agriculture is the major occupation in Tamilnadu. The total cultivated area in the State was 56.10 million hectares in 2007-08. The principal food crops include paddy, millets and pulses. Commercial crops include sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, coconut, cashew, chillies, gingelly and groundnut. Plantation crops are tea, coffee, cardamom and rubber. Major forest produces are timber, sandalwood, pulp wood and fuel wood. Tamilnadu occupies a premier position in the production and extensive application of bio-fertilizers. Efforts are on to improve farming technologies so as to increase yields in the low rainfall areas of the State. Annual food grains production in the year 2007-08 was 100.35 lakh mt.

Industry and Minerals

Major Industries in the State are cotton, heavy commercial vehicles, auto components, railway coaches, power pumps, leather tanning industries, cement, sugar, paper, automobiles and safety matches.

Knowledge based industries like I.T. and Biotechnology have become the thrust area in the industrial scene in Tamilnadu. TIDEL, a software technology park, has been established in Tharamani, Chennai. The Software export from the State which was Rs. 20,700 crores in 2006-07 is expected to cross Rs. 25,000 crores in 2007-08. Top I.T. and Telecom companies such as Nokia, Motorola, Foxcon, Flextronic and Dell have commenced production.

Global auto majors Hyundai Motors, Ford, Hindustan Motors and Mitsubishi have commenced production plants. Ashok Leyland and TAFE have set up expansion plants in Chennai.

Main mineral wealth of the state is granite, lignite and limestone. The state is an important exporter of tanned skin and leather goods, yarn, tea, coffee, spices, engineering goods, tobacco, handicrafts and black granite. Tamil Nadu contributes to 60 per cent of the tannery industry in India.


Important irrigation schemes and modernisation of existing Periyar Vaigai System, Palar Basin System and Parambikulam-Aliyar System besides the minor system in Vellar, Pennayar, Araniyar Amaravathi, Chithar basins totaling, an extent of six lakh acres of existing ayacut in Tamil Nadu have been benefited by implementing the ‘System Improvement and Farmers Turnover Projects’ executed with assistance from World Bank. The major irrigation system covering one-third of irrigated extent in Tamil Nadu, namely tank irrigation system has been given due regard for development under WRCP, and 620 tanks maintained by Public Works Department falling under Palar, Vaigai, and Tamaraparani Basins have been taken up for rehabilitation and improvement. The State has become the pioneer State to implement the system of ‘River basin management’ by an individual body consisting of officials and farmers besides various representatives of the basin. To start with, Basin Management Boards have been formed for Palar and Tamaraparani basins.


The total installed capacity for electricity in the State is 8,249 MW. The installed capacity of State Sector is 5,288 MW, and that of Private Sector is 1,058 MW. Apart from this, 1,903 MW is available as share from Central Sector.


Roads: The length of roads network in Tamil Nadu is 1, 93,918 km.

Railways: The total length of railways is 4,181 km, the main junctions being Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli.

Aviation: Chennai being the international airport in the southern region is the main centre of airline routes. Besides, there are airports at Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem.

Ports: Major ports in the State are Chennai and Tuticorin. There are seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam.


Bharatnatyam Dance

Pongal is the harvest festival celebrated by the farmers in January to worship the sun, the earth and the cattle as thanks giving for a bounteous harvest. Pongal festival is followed by the Jallikattu-Bull fight, in some parts of southern Tamil Nadu. Alanganallur in Tamil Nadu is internationally famous for Jallikattu – Bull fight. Chithirai festival, Madurai brings a spectacular re-enactment of the marriage of the Pandiyan princess Meenakshi to Lord Sundareswarar. Adipperukku is a festival celebrated on the 18th day of Tamil month, Adi, on the banks of rivers. It marks the commencement of new farming operations. Dance Festival, Mamallapuram, which is set before an open air stage, created 13 centuries ago the incredible monolithic rock sculptures of the Pallavas, next to the sea in this ancient city of Mamallapuram. Bharatha Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, and Odissi are some dance forms presented by the very best exponents of the art besides folk dances. At the Natyanjali Dance Festival, the temple city of Chidambaram pays special tribute to Lord Nataraja the ‘Cosmic Dancer’.

Mahamagam Festival is a holy festival that brings pilgrims to Kumbakonam once in 12 years – the temple city that gets its name from Kumbha – the divine pot. The summer festival is held every year in the ‘Queen of Hill Stations’, the evergreen Ooty, the exquisite Kodaikkanal or the salubrious heights of Yercaud. Kanthuri Festival is a truly secular festival, where devotees flock to the shrine of saint Quadirwali. One of the descendants of the Saint is chosen as a Peer or spiritual leader, and is honoured with offerings. On the tenth day of the festival, the Saint’s tomb is anointed with sandalwood, and later the holy sandal paste is distributed to everyone. Wondrous legends surround the church, the most famous being that of the ship wrecked Portuguese sailors, who in the 16th century, vowed to build a great shrine for the Virgin Mary, for saving their lives in a terrible storm. The Velankanni festival attracts thousands, clad in orange robes to the sacred spot where the ship landed. Equally famous are the Virgin Mary’s miraculous healing powers, earning for the church the name ‘Lourdes of the East’.

The Navarathiri Festival, literally means the festival of ‘nine nights’, taking unique and different forms in different states of India, all to propitiate the goddess Sakthi, for power, wealth and knowledge. Rows of glittering earthen lamps outside every home and joyous burst of fire crackers mark Tamil Nadu’s Festival of lights, Karthigai Deepam. In December, Chennai celebrates her priceless heritage of carnatic music and dance at its Music Festival to present a galaxy of star artistes, old and new.

Tourist Centres

Meenakshi Temple, Madurai

Chennai, Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam, Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvannamalai, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tirunelveli, Kanniyakumari, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, Kazhugumalai (monument centres), Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Suruli (water-falls), Ooty (Udhagamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Elagiri Kolli Hills (hill stations), Guindy (Chennai), Mudumalai, Annamalai, Mundanthurai, Kalakad (wild life sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries), Arignar Anna Zoological Park, near Chennai, are some of the places of tourist interest.

Source: India 2010 – A Reference Annual


Particulars Description
Area 1,91,791 sq. km
Population 52,850,562
Capital Bangalore

History and Geography

Karnataka has a recorded history of more than 2,000 years. Apart from its subjection to the rule of Nandas, Mauryas and the Satavahanas, Karnataka came to have indigenous dynasties like the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas from the middle of the 4th century AD. The world renowned Gomateshwara monolith at Sharavanabelagola was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya. The Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) reigned over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kaveri from the days of Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD) who even defeated the mighty Harshavardhana of Kanauj. This dynasty created fine, everlasting and the most beautiful monuments at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, both structural and rock cut. Aihole has been one of the cradles of temple architecture in the country.

The Rashtrakutas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed who succeeded them heaped tributes on the rulers of Kanauj successively in the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj’. Kannada literature developed during this period. Outstanding Jain scholars of India lived in their court. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 AD to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu built exquisite temples, encouraged literature and various fine arts. Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara) lived at Kalyana. The great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana. Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1646) patronised and fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature in Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. Overseas trade flourished.

The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (Tobacco, Maize, Chillies, Groundnut, potato, etc). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under British rule. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was ushered in. The urban middle-class emerged.

Mysore dynasty initiated and helped industrialisation and cultural growth. Freedom Movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After Independence, the Mysore State was created in 1953, wherein all the Kannada dominant areas under different dispensations were unified and the enlarged Mysore state carved in 1956 and was renamed Karnataka in 1973.

Karnataka State is situated between 11031′ and 18014′ north latitudes and 74012′ and 78010′

Forestry and Wildlife

The Forest department manages about 20.15% of the geographical area of the State. Forests have been classified as reserved forests, protected forests, unclassified forests, Villages forests, and private forests. There are 5 National Parks and 23 Wildlife sanctuaries. To overcome shortage of fuel wood, fodder and timber, degraded forests and waste lands are being developed. Emphasis is also being laid on the conservation, protection and development of the fragile eco-system of the Western Ghats. Several Wildlife protection schemes such as Project Tiger and Project Elephant are being implemented with the Central assistance. The concept of Joint Forest Planning and Management applied to the 2 externally aided projects viz., DFID and JBIS has resulted in village forest planning and management through establishment of Village Forest Committees. Japan Bank for International Cooperation has approved a new scheme called Karnataka Sustainable Forest Management and Bio-diversity project and it is being implemented from 2005-06 to 2012-13 throughout Karnataka.


The State has 66% rural population and 55.60 per cent of workers are agricultural labourers. The State has 60% (114 lakh ha) cultivable land and 72% of the cultivable area is rainfed; only 28% is under irrigation. The state has 10 Agro climatic Zones. The Red soil constitutes major soil type, followed by Black soil. The net sown area of the state constituted 51.7% of the total land. During 2007-08, food grain production is anticipated to be 117.35 lakh metric tons against the target of 119.70 lakh metric ton.


Karnataka is one of the major milk producers and the Karnataka Milk Federation has 21 dairy processing plants with a capacity of 26.45 lakh litres a day and 42 chilling centres having 14.60 lakh litres of chilling capacity.


Horticulture crops are grown in an area of 16.80 lakhs hectares and the produces amount to 101 lakh tons. The Union Government has earmarked Rs. 171.29 crores for Karnataka under National Horticulture Mission.

Major and Medium Irrigation

28% of the cultivable land in the state is under irrigation. During 2006-07, 23.21 hectares of land was covered by major and medium irrigation and 9.93 lakh hectares was covered by minor irrigation, constituting a total of 33.14 lakh hectares of irrigated area.

Power Generation

Karnataka was the pioneer in establishing hydroelectric projects in the country. Today, Karnataka has 7222.91 Power Generation Installed capacity and 31229 Million Units of Electricity was generated in 2007-08.

Information Technology

Karnataka State continues its unassailable lead in the IT sector, recording software exports of Rs. 48,700 crores, during 2006-07. For 2007-08 upto November-07 the export was Rs. 24450 crores. It is expected to grow by 25% over previous year’s achievements. The recent report by Nasscom has recognised Manglore and Mysore among the fastest growing IT cities in the country.


Karnataka State and Bangaluru city in particular have become the largest bio-lusters in the country. During 2006-07 three projects were cleared through SLSWA with an investment of Rs. 535.50 crores. The value of Biotech exports was 215 Million US$.



Road: Total road length of Karnataka has increased from 83,749 km in 1971 to 2,15, 849 km in 2007. The Karnataka Highways Improvement Project with World Bank assistance will improve 2375 kms of road, i.e. upgradation of 900 km and rehabilitation of 1475 kms comprising state highways and major district roads at an estimated cost of Rs. 2402.51 crores. Assistance is being provided under the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund for the construction and improvement of roads and bridges in the state.

Ports: The Karnataka State has a maritime coastline of 155 nautical mile (300 kilometers) and has only one Major Port at Mangalore i.e. New Mangalore Port and studded with 10 minor ports of the State are Karwar, Belekeri, Tadri, Honnavar, Bhatkala, Kundapur, Hangarkatta, Malpe, Padubidri and Old Mangalore. Out of 10 ports Karwar is the only all weather port while the other nine are the reverine anchorage lighter age ports. All these ports have handled a total cargo of 6573 thousand tonnes in 2006-07.

Aviation: The Civil Aviation Sector has seen tremendous growth with international air passenger traffic growth of 50% and domestic air passenger growth at 44% during 2006-07. As regards cargo traffic, the State airports handled 1.66 lakh ton of freight during 2006-07, a 19% increase over the previous year.

Bangaluru International Airport: Country’s First Green Field International Airport has been set up at Devanahalli near Bangaluru at a cost of Rs. 2000 crores as a passenger and Cargo hub under Public Private Partnership and has started functioning from 28th May, 2008. This airport has put Bangalore City on global destination and offer travellers’ facilities comparable with best international standards.

The Government has also planned to develop airports at Shimoga and Gulbarga on PPP basis.


Hampi – World Heritage Site

Vidhana Soudha – Bangalore

Karnataka “One State Many Worlds” is becoming a Hub of tourist attraction of South India. The IT & BT Centre Bangaluru has received more tourists in the recent past. There is a phenomenal growth in tourist arrivals of over 40% in 2006-07 compared to 2005-06. The State is known for its Heritage monuments and Eco-Tourism destinations.

The Golden Chariot named after the famous Stone Chariot in Hampi, a world heritage site, in Southern India will travel through timeless historical heritage sites, resplendent palaces, wildlife and golden beaches. Its 7 Nights/8 Days colourful journey begins every Monday from Bangaluru and traverses through Mysore, visiting Srirangapatna, Mysore Palace, The Nagarhole National Park (Kabini) and continuing to the historical sites of Shravanabelagola, Belur – the 11th century cradle of Hoysala architecture and a world heritage site, Halebidu, Hampi and thereafter entering into the triangular heritage site of Badami, Pattadakal, Aihole and finally the Golden Beaches of Goa before ending in Banglore.

Karnataka has a blend of heritage places, thick dense forests and holy places. The new concept of ‘Home stay’ has added a new dimension to Tourism in the State. Hampi and Pattadakal have been declared as world heritage site.

New Schemes & Achievements

E-Governance: Online delivery of land records scheme which was started in the year 2000 has successfully digitised 200 lakh land records and enabled the mutation process online making the RTCs easily available in Kiosks at taluk level specially set up for the purpose. It is now decided to redevelop the existing software to upgrade it with enhanced feature and strengthened technical base. The new Bhoomi software will cover all the existing features like linking with Kaveri Programme, Banks, Courts, Phodi process and have new features like linking land acquisition cases, mutations of non-agricultural land.

In addition to this, E-Governance has implemented “Bangaluru One Programme” a multiple service centre where citizens can pay electricity bill, telephone bill etc. and avail around 25 other services under one roof. It has also developed Nemmadi programme in Karnataka by establishing 765 Nemmadi tele centres under PPP in all the Hobli Headquarters to obtain the Income, Birth and Death Certificates. Apart from this it has developed HRMS as one of its core initiatives and most common function across all Departments.

Bhagyalakshmi: With an intention to balance the male-female ratio and to provide moral support to poor families, the Government of Karnataka has introduced an innovative scheme “Bhagyalakshmi”. The benefit is limited to two girls in each BPL family. This is an umbrella programme for child development for providing financial assistance of Rs. 10,000/- which will be deposited in the name of girl child born in the BPL family and will be given at the age of 18 years along with accrued interest. During 2007-08 Rs. 132.42 crores have been released and 1.31 lakh beneficiaries have been identified. In the budget 2008-09 recently presented by the Chief Minister has raised the amount to Rs.1 lakh and 266.65 crores have been allocated.

Madilu: This is another scheme introduced to promote the institutional delivery and thereby protecting the maternal as well as the infant’s health. Under the scheme a kit consisting of requirements for the baby and mother is provided after delivery. This facility is provided to all BPL families. During 2007-08 about 1.50 lakh were benefitted. Further, the institutional deliveries have increased to 67.97% in 2007-08 compared to 63.82% in 2006-07.

Bhagyaratha: In order to provide better access and further continue education, the state government has contemplated a programme to provide bicycles to both boys and girls studying in 8th standard studying in government and grant-in-aid schools. About 1.75 lakh girls and 2.33 lakh boys belonging to BPL families have been covered under this scheme during 2007-08. This year (i.e. 2008-09) this scheme has been extended to all children studying in 8th standard in government and grant-in-aid schools. Over 7 lakh children are expected to be benefitted from this.

Andhra Pradesh

Particulars Description
Area 2,75,069 sq. km
Population 76,210,007
Capital Hyderabad
Principal Languages Telugu and Urdu

History and Geography

The earliest mention of the Andhras is said to be in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 B.C.). It indicates that the Andhras, originally an Aryan race living in north India migrated to south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans. Regular history of Andhra Desa, according to historians, begins with 236 B.C., the year of Ashoka’s death. During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties that ruled over the area in succession were the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi followed by Mir Qumruddin and his successors, known as the Nizams. Gradually, from the 17th century onwards, the British annexed territories of the Nizam and constituted the single province of Madras.

Charminar, Hyderabad

After Independence, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State came into being on 1 October 1953. With the passing of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, there was a merger of Hyderabad State and Andhra State, and consequently Andhra Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956.

Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orissa and Chhattisgarh, on the west by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by the Bay of Bengal with a coastline of 974 km.


Agriculture is the main occupation of about 62 per cent of the people in Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major food crop and staple food of the State contributing about 77 per cent of the foodgrain production. Other important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane. Forests cover 23 per cent of the State’s area. Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casurina, bamboo, softwood, etc.

The Government decided to arrange crop loans to the farmer at concessional rates of interest from the kharif season (2008) under the ‘Pavala Vaddi’ (3% rate of interest) scheme and also increased the loan amount to farmers from Rs. 23,000 crores in 2007-08 to Rs. 26,000 crores in 2008-09 to achieve the goal of increasing food grain production. Under the Centre’s Rs. 60,000 crore loan waiver scheme. 77 lakh farmers of the State benefit to the tune of Rs. 12,000 crore. The prestigious ‘Jalayagnam’ project is designed by the Government to save the farmer from the vagaries of monsoons and provide assured irrigation facility to every acre of land. Farming in Andhra Pradesh today is so encouraging and remunerative that no farmer entertains farmers’ suicides.


Important irrigation schemes implemented in the State are Vamsadhara Project Stage-I, Godavari Delta System, Yeleru Reservoir Project, Krishna Delta System, Pennar Delta System, Pennar River Canal System, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy Sagar Project, Tungabhadra Project high level canal Stage-I, Tungabhadra Project low level canal, Sriramsagar Stage-I, Nizamsagar Project, Nagarjuna Sagar Project and Rajolibanda Diversion scheme.

Andhra Pradesh is the first state to involve the farmers in the management of irrigation sources.


Important power projects in the State are: the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal power projects. The Srisailam Hydro Electric project (Right Bank) with an installed capacity of 770 MW and the Srisailam Left Bank HES capacity of 900 MW and the Nagarjunasagar complex with 960 MW are the principal sources of hydel generation. Vijayawada Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,260 MW and Kothagudem Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,200 MW are the main sources of thermal power generation. The 1,000 MW coal-based Simhadri Thermal Power station aims at supplying the entire energy generated to the State. Installed capacity of the state as on May’08 is 12,382 MW For massive capacity addition of 8860 MW, 17 new projects are programmed by APGENCO which are expected to complete within next five years.

Industry and Minerals

There are several major industries in operation around Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. They manufacture machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, fertilizers, electronic equipments, aeronautical parts, cement and cement products, chemicals, asbestos, glass and watches. Andhra Pradesh has the largest deposits of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. Other important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to the entire South India.

The State Government has been promoting the manufacturing sector in a big way by providing concessions in power tariff, allotting land and relaxing labour laws in SEZs. AP has promoted 71 SEZs of which 52 have been notified by the Government of India with an investment potential of Rs. 35,000 crore and creation of employment for 25 lakh persons.

According to RBI Report of August 2007, Andhra Pradesh ranked second among States in the Country in attracting investments of Rs. 25,173 crore in 2006-07. The Confederation of Indian Industry lauded Andhra Pradesh as the Best Performing State in the manufacturing sector.

Information Technology

Andhra Pradesh has been forging ahead in the sphere of Information Technology. It is ahead of other states in exploiting the opportunities to the hilt. The State Government has introduced many schemes to utilize the maximum number of skilled human resources in the I.T. Sector. During 2007-08 I.T. exports crossed Rs. 26,000 crores.

The Government is making efforts to spread I.T. to Tier II cities like Warangal, Tirupathi, Kakinada, Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Guntur and Kadapa. As a result, job opportunities in the I.T. sector in Tier II cities have improved. The IIT coming up in Medak district will become operational from the coming academic year. Further, the Government succeeded in persuading BITS Pilani to open a campus in Hyderabad which will become operational from the coming academic year.

The Government is according top priority to I.T. development by creating the requisite infrastructure and setting up of 3 Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Idupulapaya in Kadapa District, Nuzvid in Krishna District and Basara in Adilabad District) under Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies to turn out qualified personnel.


Roads: National Highways passing through Andhra Pradesh constitute 4,647 km. There are 63,863 km of state roads including 10,412 km of State highways and 1,24,142 km of Panchayati Raj roads in the State as on March 2008.

Railways: Of the railways route covering 5,107 km in Andhra Pradesh, 4,633 km is broad-gauge, 437 km is metre-gauge and 37 km is narrow gauge.

Aviation: Important airports in the State are located at Hyderabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam. International flights are operated from Hyderabad.

Ports: Visakhapatnam is a major port. There are minor ports in the State. Andhra Pradesh has emerged as the country’s no. 2 in the share of Cargo handling and its capacity has gone up.

Tourist Centres

Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad

Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Yadagirigutta, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakonda and Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala-Tirupathi, Sri Mallikarjunaswamy Temple at Srisailam, Kanaka Durga Temple at Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple at Annavaram, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam, Sri Sita Rama Temple at Bhadrachalam, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Nelapattu, etc., are the major tourist attractions in Andhra Pradesh. Thirty-three life-size statues of eminent Telugu personalities of the State were erected on Tankbund of Hussainsagar lake in Hyderabad. A giant statue of Lord Buddha of a height of about 60 feet has been erected on the Gibraltar rock in the Hussainsagar lake, which separates Hyderabad and Secunderabad cities.


Particulars Description
Area 38,863 sq. km
Population 31,841,374
Capital Thiruvananthapuram
Principal Languages Malayalam

Kerala: At a Glance

Hedged in between the Western Ghats with its highest peaks of Anamudi and Agasthyarkoodam on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west and blessed by North-East (October – November) and South-West (June – August) monsoon seasons this evergreen land of Kerala on the South-Western part of the Indian peninsula, with mountains, hills valleys and lakes, deserves to be praised with the epithet ‘God’s own Country’ which the famous English Poet Dylan Thomas used to eulogise the Wales Countryside. The geographical data of Kerala is North Latitude between 8018′ and 12048′ East longitude between 74052′ and 77022′.

A Living Heritage

The long interconnected lakes having rich wealth of estuarine fishes, mussels and clams and with coconut groves and occasional paddy fields on either side constitute National Water way III of India stretching from Thiruvananthapuram in the south to the northern most districts. This ancient conduit to take merchandise by heavy boats to the ports of Muziris (Present Kodungalloor) Aleppo (Present Alappuzha) Ayi (Present Vizhinjam) Kollam and Beypore thronged first by Romans and afterwards by Chinese, Syrians, Arabs and in recent centuries by Europeans for trade is now the golden Pathway of tourists and luxury boats. A few of the interconnected lagoons witness some of the most spirited boat races in the world such as the Nehru Trophy, Uthruttathi and Aranmula boat races. The total length of the waterways is 1687 Kms. The famous beaches of Kovalam Varkala, Cherayi, Muzhuppilangadu and Bekal brace up nearer the National Waterway III though, otherwise well-connected with the international airports of Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode and also the newly coming up Kannur airport. N.H.47 traverses the state from the south end to Palakkad for Bangalore and N.H.17 from Kochi to Mangalore for Mumbai. Besides them there are state highways such as the M.C. Road, Kochi-Madurai, Thiruvananthapuram – Thenkasi, Kozhikode-Mysore, Vadakara – Virajpettah – Bangalore roads. With 1, 54, 679 Kms road length Kerala occupies top-notch position in road connectivity.

Contribution to Bharat Varsha

Viewing from the historical angle one would find that Kerala’s contribution to Indian nationhood was outstanding. ‘Bharat Varsha’ has always been a concept of the Intellectual and emotional unity of life in the Indian sub continent even when it was under the tutelage of opposing rulers. When the peninsula was plunged into intellectual vacuum and darkness with the eclipse of Jainism and Buddhism Sree Sankaracharya emerged from the village of Kalady near Kochi from Kerala and established intellectual centres or mutts at the far corners of Bharat Varsha and brought about that intellectual unity. The serious confrontations with foreign forces on the shores of Kerala resulted in deeper interactions producing tolerance of the neighbour’s faith. At the dawn of the twentieth century Sree Narayana Guru reinforced this secular ethos of Kerala by reinterpreting the true spirit and authority of the Hindu scriptures. The biggest singular contribution of Kerala to Bharat Varsha is this secular ethos.

Kerala Model of Development

Kerala has been hailed as a model of development for having achieved a status fulfilling all the parameters of social well-being comparable to those of the developed countries of the world. The state achieved total literacy almost two decades back. It has the lowest infant mortality rate and life expectancy is 71 years for both male and female, which is the highest in the country. Maternal mortality rate is also the lowest. The state has also the lowest birth rate. This spectacular achievement in spite of having only a moderate per capita income has led economists to look upon Kerala as an economic miracle. Behind these achievements several factors are discernible such as the spread of education among all sections of the population as Dr. Amarthya Sen so forcefully emphasised, a large non-resident population and their remittances back home, successful cultivation of commercial crops especially rubber and spices, spread of cooperative movement, the services of social organisations in education and healthcare and fairly high wages for labourers. Kerala has been the first state to achieve democratic revolution, and no wonder, she heralded the phenomenon of bringing a communist government to power through ballot in world history.


Kerala has also been the first state in the country to implement land reforms. The State is giving impetus to the decentralised system of development carried out through assemblages of families in every locale, called Kudumbasree under the Grama Panchayat. Kerala’s system of decentralised development has been looked upon as a model by other states and many foreign countries. Incidentally Kerala is the only state with hospital facility in every village Kerala also enjoys the highest communication infrastructure in the country.

Economy Looks Forward

Focusing on economic development in the state one would find that the tertiary or the service sector has performed exceptionally and consistently well over the years of the state. Development on the industrial sector has been very little satisfactory owing to a variety of reasons but chiefly the unavailability of land at affordable prices for the purpose. The state government is making all out efforts to make rapid strides in IT industry in the state, the results of which are visible in the increased revenue from export of IT products. But Kerala’s forte is in tourism industry which has been growing at a fast rate. Hill stations life Vagamon, Munnar, Thekkady and Wayanad are attracting more and more tourists besides the beaches and backwaters. Incidentally, Kerala has the highest thorium deposit in the world. Once the country achieves the technology of laser isotope separation of thorium, this mineral will fetch for the country an economic bonanza equal to that of oil in the gulf countries or even bigger than that production.

Increased Food Crop Production

On the agricultural front, Kerala’s food crop is not sufficient for her needs. Paddy cultivation has been steadily losing in extent and yield. The production has come down from 13 lakh tonnes to 6.29 lakh tonnes over the years. The state is making concerted efforts to increase the extent by farming paddy on fallow lands and promoting better agricultural practices. The results are extremely encouraging. Kerala is the largest producer of natural rubber in the country and it is also the biggest producer of spices like pepper, cardamom, nutmeg, cinnamon etc.

Future with Sea-borne Commerce

The long coastline of Kerala with an array of minor ports have promoted the development of fishery sector as an important component of Kerala’s economy and source of employment. Kochi Port and Cochin shipyard have made Kochi the hub of commercial activity. The transshipment terminal being built at Vallarpadom Under the Central Government will further increase commerce in the southern region in a few years. If and when the deep sea mother port at Vizhinjam proposed by the State Government becomes a reality Kerala is poised to become the commercial hub of entire South Asia.

* Exclusively prepared content for NPI by CSP Kerala

Source: IT Department, Government of Kerala

States and Union Territories

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 7 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc. This section introduces you to the various States/UTs in the Country and urges you to explore their magnificent uniqueness…


  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Assam
  • Bihar
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Goa
  • Gujarat
  • Haryana
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Jammu and Kashmir
  • Jharkhand
  • Karnataka
  • Kerala
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Manipur
  • Meghalaya
  • Mizoram
  • Nagaland
  • Orissa
  • Punjab
  • Rajasthan
  • Sikkim
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Tripura
  • Uttarakhand
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • West Bengal

Union Territories

  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Chandigarh
  • The Government of NCT of Delhi
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  • Daman and Diu
  • Lakshadweep

Source: National Portal Content Management Team Reviewed on: 28-1-2010

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LatesT General Knowledge

Measurements of Sports

Badminton Court: 13.40 m x 5.18 m
Net: 1.524 m high
Shuttle: 4.73 to 5.50 gms
Cricket Pitch: 20.12 metres
Bat: 96.5 cm length and 10.8 cm width
Ball: 155.9 to 163 gms
Derby Course Route length: 2400 metres (or) 11/2 miles
Football Field: 100 x 64 m to 110 x 75 m
Hockey Field: 100 x 55 yards to 100 x 60 yards
Ball: 5.50 ounces to 5.75 ounces
Kabaddi Field: 13 x 10 meters
Khokho Field: 34 x 10 m to 34 x 16 metres
Lawn Tennis Court: 23.77 x 8.23 metres
Ball: 56.7 gms to 58.5 gms. (weight); 6.35 cm to 6.67 cms (diameter)
Marathon Race Route Length: 42,195 m-26 miles, 385 yards
Table Tennis Table: 275 cm x 152.5 cm, 76 cm above the ground (floor)
Ball: 37.2 to 38.2 millimeter (diameter); 9.40 to 9.53 gms.
Volleyball Court: 18 m x 9 m
Net: 9.5 m x 1 m x 2.43 m

Famous Sports personalities

Field Person
The first Indian woman to swim across the English Channel Miss. Arati Shah
The first Indian to win world Billiards Trophy Wilson Jones
The first to cross the Damelles by swimming Mihir Sen
The first to conquer Everest Sherpa Tenzing (1953)
The first to sail round the world Megellan
The first person to win Wimbledon title five times Bjorn Borg
The first woman who conquered Everest Jungo Table (Japan)
The first person to reach North Pole Robert Peary
First woman Olympic Medallist (Weight Lifting) Karnam Malleswari (2000)
The first person to reach South Pole Amundsen
The first Indian to win All England Badminton Championship Prakash Padukone
The first Indian woman to conquer Everest Bichendri Pal
The first an to climb Everest twice Nawang Gombu
The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK)
The first Indian woman to conquer Everest Bichendri Pal
The first an to climb Everest twice Nawang Gombu
The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK)
The first woma
The first Indian woman to conquer Everest Bichendri Pal
The first an to climb Everest twice Nawang Gombu
The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK)
The first woman to reach North pole Ann Bancroft
The first woman to sail non stop around the world alone Kaycottee
The first deaf & dumb to cross the strait of Gibraltar Taranath Shenoy (India)
The first woman to climb Mt. Everest twice Santosh Yadav (India)
The first black player to win the Wimbledon men’s singles title Arthur Ashe (US)
The first person to win the Palk Strait ocean swimming contest Baidyanath

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NCERT School Kits

a) Primary Science Kit (PSK)
The Primary Science Kit is a complete laboratory for classes III-V. It has basic facilities like various lab equipments, glassware, measuring devices, thermometer, heat source, etc.

For detailed list of items, Click here
For detailed list of activities,
Click here

b) Upper Primary Science Kit (UPSK)
The Upper Primary Science Kit has been developed based on the new Science text books by NCERT. It offers scope for more than 200 activities as outlined in the kit manual. The kit contains more than 130 scientific and general item, chemicals, glassware, etc.

For detailed list of items, Click here
For detailed list of activities,
Click here

c) Secondary Science Kit (SSK)
The Upper Primary Science Kit has been developed based on the new Science text books by NCERT. It offers scope for more than 200 activities as outlined in the kit manual. The kit contains more than 130 scientific and general item, chemicals, glassware, etc.

For detailed list of items, Click here
For detailed list of activities,
Click here

d) Secondary Micro scale Chemistry Kit (SMCLK)
This kit consists of apparatus / items to enable the students to do experiments using microscale chemistry lab technique. This approach saves time, reduces wastage of chemicals, is less hazardous, environment friendly and very low cost. All the experiments prescribed by CBSE for XI and X classes in chemistry can be performed using this kit.

For detailed list of items, Click here
For detailed list of Activities,
Click here

e) Senior Secondary Science Kits
a) Microscale Chemistry Laboratory Kit (MCLK)
The microscale chemistry laboratory technique not only reduces chemical waste without hazards and pollution, but also provides sufficient time to do number of experiments to clarify a concept.

This microscale chemistry laboratory kit has been designed to replace traditional chemistry laboratory. All the chemistry practical at XI and XII level can be performed using this kit.

For detailed list of items, Click here
For detailed list of activities,
Click here

b) Solid State Model Kit (SSMK)
The kit consists of a plastic moulded platform, dowels and PVC hollow balls of two different diameters. Various simple, giant molecules and a number of crystal structures can be clearly visualized and understood through this kit.

For activity manual, Click here

c) Molecular Model Kit (MMK)
The Kit enables the students to explore the structure of simple organic, inorganic molecules and solids by using this molecular model kit. This self-learning kit contains plastic moulded various atoms having a number of prongs and shapes in various colors.

For activity manual, Click here

Upper Primary Mathematics Kit (UPMK)
Upper Primary Mathematics Kit has been designed to enable the students to do various activities for learning mathematics concepts at upper primary level.

For detailed list of items, Click here
For detailed list of activities,
Click here

This kit consists of play material for kids of pre-primary stage. EVA (Ethylene Vinyal Acetate) has been used as raw material for many items in the kit due to its advantage over plastics, wood and metals.

The Tool Kit contains specially designed hand tools and first aid consumables. While designing and listening items for the kit, all attempts have been made to ensure that the tools are not heavy or unsafe for the small plams of the elementary school child.

For detailed list of items, Click here

For the detailed brochure about NCERT Kits Click here
For published research papers on Science Kits

* A Novel W-Tube for Micro scale Experiment in Chemistry Click here
* Visualizing Chemical Structure with a Simple Inexpensive Model
Click here

For more technical details, advice and training about the above kits, please contact:

Head, Workshop Department
National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT)
Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi – 110 016
Telefax : (011) 2696-6257
E-mail: hari_gupta200@yahoo.com

Filed under: NCERT, ,

Young word Quiz with Answer

Young Word Quiz (May 18,2010)

From the movie :Who plays Harry, Ron and Hermione?

Photo : AP

Shrek : Which film company takes credit for this masterpiece?

1. One of the most eagerly-awaited summer releases is “Toy Story 3”. Who is to reprise as the voices of Woody and Buzz?

2. Which was the first of the 21 full-length adventures and numerous short stories featuring Enid Blyton’s “Famous Five”?

3. Many of us would have enjoyed the literary creations of Theodor Seuss Geisel. Under what pen name did Geisel write?

4. Which talented actor has played the role of the maverick Willy Wonka and Mad Hatter in the recent past?

5. Which popular comic-book series came into being when its originator saw that kids at a quiz show did not know who Lord Rama’s mother was?

6. Which character has his home at Rajani Sen Road, Ballygunj, Kolkata?

7. In the hit film “Taare Zameen Par”, what learning ‘shortcoming’ does Ishaan Nandkishore Awasthi have?

8. Name the studio behind the very successful “Shrek” movies.

9. A.A. Milne, the creator of Winnie the Pooh, adapted a part of which much-loved book for stage as “Toad of Toad Hall”?

10. The story of d’Artagnan which began in “The Three Musketeers” continued in two more books Name both.

11. Name the actors who have played Harry, Ron and Hermione since the first film of the adaptation of the hit book series.

12. Name the popular author who shares his surname with a world-famous literary secret agent and lives in Mussoorie.

13. Name the parents of Perseus ‘Percy’ Jackson.

14. Which upcoming Disney film is based on a hugely successful third-person action-adventure computer and video game published by Ubisoft in 2003?

15. According to the fairy tale, on what does Sleeping Beauty prick her finger?


1. Tom Hanks and Tim Allen
2. Five on a Treasure Island. 3. Dr. Seuss
4. Johnny Depp
5. Amar Chitra Katha
6. Pradosh C. Mitter aka Feluda
7. Dyslexia
8. Dream Works Animation SKG, Inc.
9. Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows
10. ‘Twenty Years After’ and ‘The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later’
11. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint and Emma Watson
12. Ruskin Bond
13. Poseidon and Sally Jackson
14. ‘Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time’
15. A spindle.

Filed under: Young Word Quiz With Answer, ,

Why do the same photos taken from the same camera take up different memory space?

Why do the same photos taken from the same camera take up different memory space?


Kottayam, Kerala

Some pictures take up less storage space in memory because patterns within the picture mean they can be represented more compactly.

A digital picture is made up of many small coloured dots called pixels. These pixels are packed so closely together that we do not see them individually, but rather they merge into each other to create the picture. Most digital cameras take photographs that are made up of millions of pixels.

Each pixel is represented by a series of numbers that contain information about the colour and brightness of the pixel

Mathematical techniques called compression algorithms are used to reduce the memory space required. The algorithms use patterns in the picture to reduce memory size. For instance, if there are 10 white pixels in a row, it is more compact to store this information as a code that means ‘10 white pixels’ rather than simply repeating the same information for each of the white pixels. The algorithms are more sophisticated than this, but essentially they search for all sorts of patterns to make the information storage smaller.

Simple pictures can be stored in less space than complicated pictures. A simple picture has simple relationships among the pixels and these can be represented by simple codes. You can try this by taking a photograph of a white page and one of an ordinary scene. The memory size of the photo of the white page will be much smaller. No two photos will be exactly the same, and there will be different amounts of compression in each.

The compression algorithm may also approximate some parts of the picture to reduce the memory storage. This may lead to the loss of some of the detail in the picture, but often it cannot be detected by eye. Such algorithms are called “lossy,” and the ‘jpeg’ format commonly used in cameras is an example of this type.

. When a photograph is stored in memory, it means that the numbers representing the pixels need to be stored. Therefore each picture requires the storage of many millions of numbers. However, large picture files are a problem since they take up more memory and are slower to copy and transmit.


Educational Consultant

IID Community College


Courtsey: The Hindu

Filed under: General Knowledge, Young Word Quiz With Answer,

Good books, good friends

Good books, good friends

Get out the popcorn, choose your favourite couch. It’s time to let your hair down and journey into fantasy. The best time to catch up on movies and also with your reading is during the vacation. With books and movies to keep you entertained, the sun may not be such a bother. This issue of the Young World suggests some movies you can watch and books you can read.

Summer holidays. I was back in my grandparents’ place. But now that I was in senior school I had a lot of ‘holiday homework’ to complete. Whoever heard of ‘holiday homework’? Anyway, there I was in the garden, trying to accomplish two jobs at one go – that is my homework and trying to meet my friend Gnobo.

I love having Gnobo around during the holidays because he always takes me places where no one has ever been before. Gnobo is a little goblin that lives somewhere deep in a bed of marigold.

Gnobo and I were talking and he was telling me about this and that until he suddenly said, “Do you know, I have found a dungeon and there is a treasure in it!”

“What?” I exclaimed. “How can you find treasure in a dungeon? And where are there dungeons in this day and age?”

In the dungeon

Gnobo refused to tell me anything more. “If you come with me I will show you,” was all he would say. So I had no choice but follow.

Gnobo ran down the garden path, passed an orchard, down the hill, crossed a stream and then all of a sudden he stopped!

“Sssh!” he said. “It could be tricky getting into the tunnel if you wake up the dragons.”

“Dragons?” I exclaimed. “Which age are you living in?”

But Gnobo didn’t stop to answer. He simply disappeared. I found an opening in the bushes and pushed my way in. It was rather dark but I saw Gnobo in front of me. He pointed out something to me. To my surprise it was a dragon! It was fast asleep and every time it breathed a puff of smoke and fire came out of its nostrils. I was too amazed to say anything!

We walked on until we came to an opening. It was large and airy. And all around were shelves and shelves, and unbelievably there were hundreds and hundreds of books on these shelves. I almost screamed with joy. I ran around the shelves, touching the books to see if they were real. And to my utter delight, they were.

Absolutely delightful

The first shelf I came across had all the books in the Chalet school series. All 62 books! Can you just imagine my joy? The series begins with Joey Bettany’s sister Madge deciding to start a school in Austrian Tyrol. Joey is one of the first students of the school.

Madge decided on a school in Austria because her kid sister Joey always becomes sick in the English winter. The school grows from a handful of students to a school where girls from all over the world come to study. The Chalet school stories take you from the mundane everyday life in schools to adventure, mystery and even the World War!

The first book in the series is The School in the Chalet and Joey is the central character in the books. The author of this amazing series is Elinor Brent-Dyer.

There can be no treasure without the books by Enid Blyton. But I found that on these shelves there were more beside the usual school series of Malory Towers and St. Claire’s and the adventure series with the Famous Five and the Secret Seven and so on. I found the very interesting Wishing Chair books. There are three books here, beginning with the Adventures of the Wishing Chair, followed by The Wishing Chair Again and finally More Wishing Chair Stories.

The story begins with two kids, Mollie and Peter, trying to find a gift for their mother for her birthday. They stumble upon an antique shop that is run by fairy folk. It is there that they find the magic wishing chair and there begins a never-ending chain of adventures. Then I saw The Children of Cherry Tree Farm, Mister Meddle’s Mischief, Adventures of Mr. Pink Whistle, Bed-Time Stories, The Children of Willow Farm…and oh! so many more.

Dark, dusty shelves

The Roald Dahl shelf also did not disappoint. Almost all his books were there. James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Fantastic Mr. Fox, Matilda, The Witches and The BFG and The Giraffe and the Pelly and Me. There were even some of his poetry books too, Dirty Beasts and Rhyme Stew.

Gnobo, in the meantime, was rushing through the shelves calling out names of books and authors. I could hear him from somewhere across the aisle.

“ Abel’s Island by William Steig, Babe, the Gallant Pig by Dick King-Smith, The House with a Clock in its Walls by John Bellairs, The Ruby in the Smokeby Philip Pullman…”

“Stop it, Gnobo,” I shouted, “I can’t keep track. And where are you?”

“I am at the shelf that has books by Ruskin Bond. Here’s the whole Rusty books and The Ruskin Bond Omnibus and more…”

“This is surely a treasure trove. Here on this shelf I have so many – The Puffin Book of Spooky Ghost Stories, The Magic Store of Nu-Cham Vu, The Feluda Mysteries, Malgudi Schooldays… Oh! I can’t wait to begin reading them all!

A little bit of India

Mister Jeejeebhoy and the Birds by Anitha Balachandran

Diya and Tara come to live in their aunt Ninamasi’s house. And then there is Mister Jeejeebhoy’s sweetshop. Read the book to find out what happens to Diya and Tara.

History, Mystery, Dal and Biryani by Subhadra Sen Gupta

Travel back in time and discover an India so different, so colourful and so full of adventure.

Exquisite Balance by Poile Sengupta

Suprabha and Subir are twins. But their mother is in for a surprise. She realises that her twins are nothing like each other!

Flippi the Flying Pup, Squiggly goes for a Picnic, Lippo goes to a Party and Cheeko and the School Bag by Deepa Agarwal

Flippi is a dog that can fly. Squiggly is an untidy worm. Lippo loves a good party and Cheeko loves mangoes and goes to school.

The Giant who Looked for his Temper by Santhini Govindhan

Boomba lived in a cave and he had no friends. Everyone was scared of him because he had a nasty temper. And then one day Boomba tries to find a way to control his temper.

Kali and the Rat Snake by Zai Whitaker

Kali has just joined school and he hates every minute of it. He has no friends because everyone thinks he is different. His father is a snake catcher! Find out how Kali fares…

Have you read these?

Arabian Nights or One Thousand and One Nights

The story is about a Persian king who gets married and expects his new bride to tell him a story every night. If she cannot tell a story he has her beheaded. Finally, Scheherazade, the vizier’s daughter offers to be the king’s bride. She begins to tell a story but it does not end that night. So the king cannot behead her, because he has to hear the end of the story. And so it continues for 1001 nights. Some of the more famous stories in this book are Aladdin’s Wonderful Lamp, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor.

Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

His parents want him to study Law, but Crusoe wants to sail the high seas. Sail he does and ends up having many an adventure. He lands up on an island inhabited by cannibals and during one skirmish rescues a prisoner, Friday, who then becomes his faithful ally. A story of daring and adventure. A story of being able to pursue your dreams.

Goody Two-Shoes by Oliver Goldsmith

Margery Meanwell, an orphan, has only one shoe. Then one day, she is given a pair by a rich gentleman. She tells everyone, that she now has “two shoes”!

The Children of New Forest by Frederick Marryat

Colonel Beverley is killed in the Battle of Naseby (June 1645). His family lived in Arnwood which the soldiers have burnt down. Everyone thinks his children are dead. But, actually they had escaped and are being taken care of by Jacob Armitage, a gamekeeper, in his cottage in the New Forest.

There are more … Gulliver’s Travels, Alice in Wonderland, The Coral Island, Little Women, Lorna Doone, The Swiss Family Robinson, Rip Van Winkle, Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea, Ivanhoe, The Three Musketeers…

Courtesy: The Hindu

Filed under: Article of Week, ,



SESSION 2010-2011




As per the guidelines of  KVS and the able guidance of Principal Shri A.K. Puri  , KV Baramulla has been organizing an array of activities to bring qualitative  improvement in Primary education.Compliance report of the Common Minimum Programme is given parawise.


i) The largest available room in the Vidyalaya has been developed as The                            Resource Room.It is equipped with 29” colour TV,DVD player,one computer with broadband connectivity and one mini white board.

ii) Monthly contingent fund is drawn for the month of April’10 to meet the requirement of developing TLM for the new session and will be drawn every month except Dec,Jan and March.

iii) Class Library is set up in every primary class within the limits of the infrastructure available.


i) Specific plan for Activity based classes,assignment and checking  schedule has been chalked out and given to all primary teachers. Fortnightly planning of the activities is checked by the Principal and every activity sheet prepared by the teachers is checked by the senior most PRT. Primary I/C also organized short duration workshop on  April 20, 2010.

ii)Interaction session is also conducted in order to exchange ideas and material to facilitate teaching learning process.It also helps the new members of the Vidyalaya to acquaint themselves to the culture of the KVS.


Block periods have been arranged for every instructional subject in the            Primary wing for the session 2010-11.

Film shows are organized on a rotational basis. Teachers pool movies appropriate to the age of the viewer.Feedback of students is recorded.


CCA calendar has been planned for the year 2010-11 and some activities have been charted out especially for the primary section. These include an array of joyful and educative activities like dancing, singing, clay modeling, poem rectitation, sports, calligraphy, drawing, story telling etc.

Under the SCHOOL READINESS PROGRAMME students enjoyed Community lunch, a trip around the school for orientation,clay modeling,film show,drawing of various kinds etc.

Like in the previous session this year too BAL MELA will be organized.Various stalls will be set up by the students.They will be encouraged to keep healthy food items on their stalls like sprouts,cheese chaat,lemonade,fruit chaat,juices etc as done in the Mela before.

For exposure to the diverse food culture of our country and to inculcate good eating habits class teacher of each class has his or her lunch with the students. This also nurtures belongingness among students and their teachers. This also helps in doing away with the habit of eating junk food.

A glimpse of various activities done under CMP :

Teacher distributing sweets under School Readiness Programme & students trying their hands at clay modeling

Students see the functioning of a working model (above) and viewing a powerpoint presentation (below)

Students enjoying a film show

Students at the Bal Mela

Filed under: CMP, , ,

Azim Premji is India’s Bill Gates – Forbes

Washington: India’s software tycoon Azim Premji plans to set up a world-class university to train teachers who will fan out to the teacher training institutes in India’s 600 districts.

“It will be a world-class university with a large endowment,” 64-year-old Premji told Forbes magazine noting, “Most of these institutes are a complete mess with the teachers leading the classes worse than the teachers that come to get trained.”

The proposed university to upgrade teaching methods will be the latest venture of Azim Premji Foundation that focuses on education, improving standards in India by training teachers and, among other things, funding model schools.

Started nine years ago and funded solely by Premji, the foundation was given stock valued at “much more than” Rs 450 crore or roughly $101 million estimated by a newspaper.

Much like Microsoft founder Bill Gates, Premji also plans to give away most of his money during his lifetime, the US business magazine revealed.

“Even if I was to give my children a small part of my wealth, it would be more than they can digest in many lifetimes,” he said by way of explaining.

For Premji, Forbes said philanthropy boils down to a simple philosophy: “To those to whom much is given, much has to be given back.”

If the Indian software billionaire, who ranks No. 28 among the richest people in the world with $17 billion to his name, winds up giving away most of hismoney to charity, he would be a rare breed among Asian entrepreneurs who have tended to pass their wealth onto their children rather than putting it to philanthropic use, it said.

The efforts of Premji’s foundation are separate from the philanthropic initiatives Wipro pursues, Forbes noted.

Some of these initiatives, such as Mission 10X, which is focused on making India’s engineering students more employable in the information technology industry, clearly dovetail with Wipro’s business interests.

Others, such as Wipro Cares, match contributions from employees and provide disaster relief, lending a hand after the earthquake in Gujarat or the floods in Orissa, for instance.

Both the foundation’s and Wipro’s philanthropic efforts, according to the US business magazine, share a common philosophy: They seek to offer the recipients of aid an ownership stake by often requiring them to pick up some of the tab

Filed under: Educational News, , ,

All CBSE schools to have health and wellness clubs

All CBSE schools to have health and wellness clubs

New Delhi: India is planning to set up a health and wellness club in all the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) schools across the country to promote safe sanitation practice, Human Resource Development Minister Kapil Sibal said on Tuesday.

“Health and wellness club will be set up in all schools for better sanitation. Let’s promise for zero tolerance against poor sanitation,” Sibal said after launching the National School Sanitation Initiative.

He said only nine percent of school students wash their hands before eating and these clubs will promote issues like these among students. “They are the future and their good health will help a build a better tomorrow.”

The initiative is a collaboration project between the Human Resource Development (HRD) ministry and the urban development ministry. It is estimated that 17 percent of the urban population in India currently has no access to any sanitation facilities, while 50-80 percent of the wastewater is disposed untreated.

Anshu Vaish, secretary school education, said at least 45 percent of Indian schools do not have separate toilets for girls. “This is impacting girl students’ admission and we have a long way to go in improving this situation.”

Initially the health and wellness club will come up in CBSE schools as it is the initiative of the board, Vaish told the sources.

“We will inform all the state boards and if they want all the materials can be translated to desired regional languages.”

S. Jaipal Reddy, who was also present at the event, said safe drinking water and sanitation are part of the millennium development goals and the government is striving to better the situation.

“With this initiative, we will create awareness about sanitation in school level. Students are change agents and we are targeting them,” Reddy added. IANS

Filed under: Educational News, , ,

How Cash Reserve Ratio affects loan rates?

How Cash Reserve Ratio affects loan rates?

The Cash Reserve Ratio is the amount of funds that the banks are bound to keep with Reserve bank of India. Present CRR is 6.0 per cent. It has been raised by 25 basis points from 5.75 to 6.00. RBI uses the method of CRR hike to drain out the excess liquidity from the banks. This is because; the banks will now have to keep more money with the Reserve Bank of India. On this money banks don`t earn any interest. Since they don’t earn any interest, the banks are left with an option to increase the interest rates. In this question, the word `substantially` has been used. The question wants you to know this basic principle. The increased rate may or may not be seen sooner or later in case of the present hike of 25 basis points, but if RBI hikes this rate substantially, banks will have to increase the rates. The home loans, car loans and EMI of floating Rate loans increase. The latest move by RBI of increasing the CRR will be sucking excess liquidity of 12500 crores of Rupees. This is the extra amount which now the banks will keep in the Central Bank.

Filed under: General Knowledge, ,

How are Rupee-Dollar rates determined?

How are Rupee-Dollar rates determined?
The value of a currency against another is based on demand. Greater demand makes a currency stronger and vice versa. When there is a good inflow of dollars in India, the value of dollar will go down and value of Rupees will go up, because Rupees will be required to convert all dollars.
However, there are many determinants of the exchange rates of a particular currency against another currency. If these determinant factors are favorable to a country, there is a possibility that value of that country’s currency will rise.
Some of these determinants are:
  • International Parity Conditions
  • Balance of Payments
  • Economic Policies of a government (Fiscal Policy, Budget, Investment policy and Foreign Trade Policies) and a country’s central Bank (Cost of money, interest rates, monetary policy)
  • General macroeconomic conditions of the country
  • Inflation levels and trends
  • Balance of Trade
  • Market Psychology & perception
  • General political stability

There are two types of exchange rate regimes. One is fixed exchange rate regime where the exchange rates are decided by the government. Another is floating exchange rate regime (an example is China, but now the Chinese leaders say that it will switch to Floating Rate regime very soon). In most countries Floating Exchange Rate regime prevails. In floating exchange rate regime, the combined forces of the market and the above determinants decide the exchange rate.

The International parity conditions also include interest rate parity, Domestic fisher effect and international fisher effect.

The balance of trade affects the rates indicating a demand for a currency. Trade surplus may have a positive impact and trade deficit may have a negative impact on country’s currency. Inflation weakens the domestic currency. (However, in certain situations the inflation may lead to strengthening of the currency in anticipation of moves of central bank to hike the interest rates). The Economic viability and productivity of a country positively influences the value of its currency. Further, Internal, regional, and international political conditions and events have a profound effect on international currency markets. Market Psychology & market perception also have profound impact on Currency rates

Filed under: General Knowledge, , , ,

What is the difference between debit card & credit card?

What is the difference between debit card & credit card?

Both Debit card and credit card and other cards like smart card are plastic money. Plastic money refers to plastic cards which play the role of medium of payment. In credit cards the customer (credit card holder) can avail the facility of buying goods and services at a Point of Sale (POS) from merchant establishments (provided such arrangements exist) without making a prior payment. This credit facility is provided by the issuer bank to the customer for a specific period.
However, in the case of debit cards, the customer (debit card holder) can buy goods and services by automatically debiting the payments to card holder’s banks account.

In case of a credit card, the card holder uses credit line by making drawings within a specified or sanctioned limit and makes payment on receiving the bill along with the applicable charges and interests.
In case of debit cards, the card holder uses the balance in his / her own bank account and payment is made immediately on purchases.

Filed under: General Knowledge, ,

With which country India shares longest border?

With which country India shares longest border?
India has 15,106.7 km of land border and a coastline of 7,516.6 km including island territories. The length of our land borders with neighbouring countries is as under :
Name of the country:Length of the border (in km)
  • Bangladesh:4,096.7
  • China:3,488
  • Pakistan:3,323
  • Nepal:1,751
  • Myanmar:1,643
  • Bhutan: 699
  • Afghanistan: 106
  • Total :15,106.7

Source: Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management)

Filed under: General Knowledge, , , , ,

“Thirst” is what I don’t find fit

“Thirst” is what I don’t find fit.

Our new generation is deeply thirsty of ‘cold-drinks’ and ‘ice-creams’. Adolescents find passion to drink strong cold-drinks with friends on roads, still even some of them are well known of these drink’s contamination.

I am not saying that I am too much preserved from all these things. Of course not! I love it and also know that “Excess of everything is bad”. I too can feel that yet we are not so much grown up to think too much about intake of food but consciousness of health must be started from now onwards because healthy man bears a healthy mind and healthy mind is what a student requires.

Turning now to main point that why we must not be eagerly crazy about thirst? It must be because the factories of thirst like cold-drinks and ice-lollies never think about the quality of products they are using in manufacturing of all these things. Strong cold-drinks contain carbon-dioxide (CO2), which is poisonous to a small extent but poison is poison irrespective of its quantity and rest of this, it contains chemicals and added colours and cheap ice-lollies that children prefer to eat also have a same state of quality as hard-drinks.

I can never forget that once in a bet I drank up one litre of ‘coca-cola’ with two ‘samosas’  (stuffed snack) as a result of which I got loose-motions and acidity sticked up my stomach for two days. Ah! What a horrible time was that and my classmates are well known of my childish that once I quickly licked up all of the chilly-sauce available on that table with chowmine (noodles) which really affected me so much. So please I don’t want you to relive my experience.

Avoid excess thirst & stay fit.



Kendriya Vidyalaya


Filed under: Creative Corner-Students,

Urbanisation and health

Urbanisation and health

Cities have the potential for effective action in health and in improving the quality of life of its inhabitants. Cities must play a vital role to take new public health action particularly in developing health public policy and strengthening community action. Urbanisation is associated with many health challenges related to water, environment, violence and injury, non-communicable disease and their risk factors like tobacco use, unhealthy diets physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol as well as risks associated with disease outbreaks. The problem is to create a political will for action; the challenge is to deploy the managerial skills and innovation required to pull together the vast human and other resources that a city processes to bring them to bear on the concept of a healthy city.

Urban health

Rapid urbanisation is due to natural growth in population and migration of people searching for better opportunities in cities. In general urban areas offer better education, jobs social mobility and services. However, many people who move to cities are trapped in marginal situations as a significant proportion of them are poor, have large families and are not well educated. The health of the urban poor suffer the most because of both living conditions and high cost of health services. The urban poor face illness and premature death from preventable diseases due to lack of safe drinking water, sanitation, health facilities, safety security, and health information.

Urbanisation and workers’ health

Health should be a right for workers. Health for all beings has been a cornerstone of health public policy, but workers who move into cities for economic reasons and to purchase better services, education and ultimately good health are comforted  by a number of conditions that instead create ill health; both for them and their families.

Human behaviour in complex urban settings

Cities are often centres of health education, research, technology and advanced services. But some of the lifestyle aspects of urban life are

contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in the region. The rapid pace of urban life may lead to neglect of nutrition and sedentary jobs invite lethargy and provide little physical stimulation; crowded living conditions ignite communicable diseases among the urban poor, as well as social tensions and stress; and heavy road traffic is part and parcel of city’s bustling life and commerce. Thus, the ongoing urban environment may take more away from the people’s health than it gives back – unless a conscious effort and planning are used to create healthy cities.

Healthy lifestyle

Healthy lifestyle can be created by making cities more liveable. Congested areas can be made more environment friendly by having these localities better planned, with more green spaces and safer neighbourhoods; education can be used to encourage healthier nutrition; parks and sidewalks enable healthy exercise and also make travel safer; and health workplaces promote a healthy workforce and also reduce accidents and the attendant social cost.

Urbanisation and injuries

The mixed nature of road traffic in many low and middle income countries – with bicycles, hand carts, motorcycles, pedal and motorised  three wheelers, cars, trucks and buses in varying proportions means that many of the technical aspects of planning, road design, traffic engineering and traffic management needs to be worked-out locally rather than imported. Moreover, there is no speed control specifically for urban areas. The increased use of motorcycles creates greater risk for pedestrians, cyclists and the motorcyclist themselves.

Rapid urbanisation leads to overcrowding transportation and dwelling beyond the planned occupancy. In cases of disaster, it can lead to high loss of life and injuries. Large number of casualties overwhelm hospitals and health facilities. In addition, many cities that have grown rapidly have not taken into account how the hazard make them more vulnerable.

Civil society has a responsibility. Let us rise to the of new world to enjoy the urban life and pay simultaneous devotion to nature and health.

Yasir Bashir


Kendriya Vidyalaya


Filed under: Creative Corner-Students, , ,

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Periodicals Articles Alert

Bachhon ko Nishulk Aur Anivaarya Shiksha Ka adhikaar Adhiniyam 2009, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1823-1825 ; E-Kachara Prabandhan: Ek Chunauti Aur Upaye, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1832-1834; Vitamin Truths & lies,Reader Digest,May2010,P.52-56; Surface Area and Volume, Education Trend,May210,P.65 ; Metals and Non Metals, Education Trend,May210,P.77; The rise of Nationalism in Europe, Education Trend,May210,P.91; Linear Equations in two variables, Education Today,May2010,P.5-15,Federalism, Sectors of Indian Economy and Water Resources Education Today,May2010,P.16-29 ; Acids, Bases and Salts, Education Today,May2010,P.30; Prehistoric Creatures,Tell Me Why,May2010; Disappearing Herbs,Out Look,May24,2010,P.56

Periodicals Arrival in the Library