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Website Addresses of Public Service Commissions in India

* Union Public Service Commission : www.upsc.gov.in
* Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission : www.apspsc.gov.in
* Arunachal Pradesh

Public Service Commission : www.apspsc.gov.in
* Assam

Public Service Commission : www.apsc.nic.in
* Bihar Public Service Commission: www.bpsc.bih.nic.in
* Chhattisgarh public service commission : www.psc.cg.gov.in
* Goa Public Service Commission : www.goapsc.gov.in
* Gujarat public service commission : www.gpsc.gujarat.gov.in
* Himachal Pradesh Public Service Commission : www.hp.gov.in
* Jammu and Kashmir Public Service Commission :www.jkpsc.org
* Jharkhand Public Service Commission : www.jharkhandjpsc.org
* Karnataka public service commission : www.kpsc.kar.nic.in
* Kerala Public Service Commission : www.keralapsc.org
* Madhya Public Service Commission : www.mppsc.nic.in
* Maharashtra Public Service Commission : www.mpsc.maharashtra.gov.in
* Manipur Public Service Commission : www.mpscmanipur.gov.in
* Nagaland Public Service Commission : www.nagaland.nic.in
* Orissa Public Service Commission : www.opsc.nic.in
* Punjab public service commission : www.ppsc.gop.pk
* Rajasthan Public Service Commission : www.rpsc.gov.in
* Sikkim Public Service Commission : www.rpsc.gov.in
* Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission : www.tnpsc.gov.in
* Tripura public service commission : www.tripura.nic.in
* Uttarakhand Public Service Commission : www.gov.ua.nic.in/ukpsc
* U.P. Public Service Commission : www.uppsc.org.in
* West Bengal public service commission : www.pscwb.org.in

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Types of Soil in India-Alluvial Soil and Black Soil

Types of Soil in India

The main categories of soils in India are: (i) Alluvial soils (ii) Black soils (iii) Red soils (iv) Laterite soils (v) Mountain and hill soils (vi) Terai soils (vii) Desert (or Arid) soil and (viii) Peat soils.

Alluvial soil and Black soil
Alluvial soil is that soil which is formed by deposition of silts brought down by the rivers. It is rich in hydrated oxides of iron and is very fertile. Black soil or the black cotton soil has a good water-holding capacity and is best suited for deep-rooted crops like cotton. The black soil in wet condition is compact and sticky.

The most extensive soil cover of India comprises alluvial soils.

Soil Erosion: The soils are usually six to twelve inches in depth. In course of time, the fertility level of the soil is depleted with the result that the soil no longer remains suitable for agriculture. Soil conservation is, therefore, necessary for continued agricultural


The agencies of erosion are winds, water and waves of which the water erosion is most common. Rain water removes soil from the surface of sloping lands. Winds remove top soil of lands.

Laterite soils are formed by the weathering of laterite rocks. These can be distinguished from other soils by their acidity. Laterite soils are generally poor on the higher levels and cannot retain moisture. In the plains, however, they consist of heavy loams and clay and can retain moisture.

Laterite soils occur in Madhya Pradesh, Assam and along the Eastern and Western Ghats. Tea plantation requires acidity which is there in the laterite soil. It is, therefore, common in these areas.

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Monsoons in India

Monsoons are periodic winds which blow from sea to land for six months in summer and from land to sea for six months in winter. Monsoon winds prevail over India at different seasons.

South-West Monsoons: These are rain-bearing winds which prevail from about the end of May to the end of September. During summer, the sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of Cancer making the Indian plains intensely hot. But the rays of the sun fall obliquely over the Indian Ocean during this period. The land is hotter than the sea, there is, therefore, low pressure over the land and high pressure over the sea. The winds blow from high to low pressure i.e., from the sea to the land, and are therefore wet winds. Because of the rotation of the earth, the monsoon winds blowing over India deflect to the right after crossing the Equator and become south-west winds. These are, therefore, called south-west monsoons.
India depends largely on these rain-bearing south-west winds. These winds give to India about 90% of the total rainfall. During their prevalence, the chief crops cultivated are rice, cotton, tobacco, tea, jawar and bajra.

North-East Monsoons (or Winter Monsoons): During the months of November to January i.e., in winter, the sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of Capricorn. The air over the Indian Ocean during this period thus becomes hot and light and there is low pressure. The sun’s rays fall obliquely on the plains of India during these months with the result that the air over these plains is cold and heavy and there is high pressure. The winds, therefore, blow from plains to the Indian Ocean. While crossing the Equator, they deflect to the left and are known as north-east monsoons.

The North-East Monsoons bring only about 10% of the total rain to India as they are chilly and dry land winds. But the moisture that they pick from the Bay of Bengal, little as it is, is very useful. Wheat, barley, oats, oilseeds and sugarcane are cultivated during this season.

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World’s Largest Producers of Crops, Minerals, Industrial goods etc.

Aluminium: U.S.A., Canada Norway, Switzerland

, France and India.
Asbestos: Canada leads in the world in production of Asbestos.
Carpets: Iran, India.
Cheese: U.S.A., England, Netherlands and Australia.
Coal: U.S.A., England, Germany, Russia, Australia and India.
Cocoa: Ghana, S. America and West Indies.
Coffee: Brazil, Indonesia, India.
Copper: Chile.
Cotton: U.S.A., Russia, Egypt, India, Brazil, Argentina and Pakistan.
Electric Bulbs: England, U.S.A., India.
Gold: South Africa, Australia, Canada, S. America, India.
Ilmenite: India.
Iron ore: U.S.A., CIS, U.K., France, Germany, India and Spain.
Jute: Bangladesh, India.
Manganese: India is largest producer of Manganese in the world. Gabon Republic situated on the western coast of South Africa is known as having one of the richest deposits at Moanda.
Mercury: Italy, Spain and U.S.A.
Monazite: India, supplies 88% of the world’s need.
Petroleum: U.S.A., Venezuela, Russia, Middle East countries, Iran and Myanmar.
Plastic Goods: U.S.A., England.
Rock Phosphate: Morocco is world’s leading supplier.
Rubber: Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. About 40% of the world’s natural rubber is produced by Malaysia.
Silk: China, U.S.A., France.
Silver: Mexico, U.S.A., Peru and India.
Steel: U.S.A., Germany, CIS and England.
Sugar: Cuba.
Tea: India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan and Indonesia.
Tin: Malaysia, Indonesia.
Wool: Australia, Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa.

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Saina Nehwal wins the Indonesian Open 2010

India’s Saina Nehwal made her country proud on Sunday as she won the Indonesian Open Super Series for her third straight badminton title in three weeks, including two successive Super Series titles. The World No.3 defeated a fighting Sayaka Sato of Japan 21-19, 13-21, 21-11 in the final here on Sunday, a win that is expected to take her to No.2 in the World rankings.

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Chief Crops and Producing States in India

Bajra (millets): Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Barley: U.P., Bihar, Haryana. Its cultivation requires cool climate.
Cardamom: Karnataka. India is the largest producer of cardamom in the world.
Cashewnut: Kerala.
Cinchona: Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills); West Bengal (Darjeeling).
Coconut: Kerala is the leading producer of coconut in India. A coconut tree normally yield 60-70 nuts in a year.
Coffee: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills) and Kerala. It is a tropical shrub.
Cotton: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Maharashtra.
Cotton Seeds: Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Gram and Pulses: U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Groundnut: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.
Hemp: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and U.P.
Jute: Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Linseed: Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, U.P.,  Maharashtra and West Bengal.
Maize: U.P., Bihar and the Punjab.
Mustard and Rape-seed (Sarson): U.P., West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar and Orissa.
Poppy (opium plant): U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir.
Rice: Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. Rice is sown on the largest acreage in India.
Rubber: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka.
Saffron: Jammu and Kashmir. It is obtained from the stigma of the saffron plant.
Silk: Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal and Assam.
Spices: Pepper in Kerala and West Bengal; Chillies in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra; Cardamom in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; Betelnuts in West Bengal and South India.
Sugarcane: U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra.
Tea: Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills), Uttarkhand (Dehradun)  and Himachal Pradesh (Kangra Hills).
Tobacco: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, U.P., West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Wheat: U.P., Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. To some extent in Bihar, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. It is sown in October-November and reaped in April.

Kharif and Rabi Crops
Kharif Crops: are crops raised in autumn as a result of sowing done in June-July. These are cotton, rice, maize and millets.
Rabi Crops: are winter crops sown in October and November and reaped in April. These are wheat, gram, linseed and mustard.

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Archimedes’ Principle: It states that a body, when immersed in a liquid, experiences an upward thrust equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis: It is a modification of Berzelius’ hypothesis. It states that equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules. Avogadro’s law is applicable only to gases.

Boyle’s Law: states that the volume of certain gas is inversely proportional to the pressure at a constant temperature. In other words the product of pressure  and volume remains constant provided the temperature is kept constant i.e., P x V = a constant if T remains the same.

Charles’s Law: It states that at constant pressure all gases expand by 1/273 of their volume at 0°C for a rise in temperature of 1°C  i.e., the volume of a given mass of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Dulong and Petit’s Law: states that the product of atomic weight and specific heat of solid elements is nearly equal to 6.4 i.e., At wt. x sp. heat = 6.4 approx.

Gay-Lussac’s Law of combining volumes: Gases react together in volumes which bear simple whole number ratios to one another and also to the volumes of the products, if gaseous—all the volumes being measured under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.

Graham’s Law of Diffusion: states that the rates of diffusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their densities under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.

Kepler’s Law: According to this law, a line drawn from the sun to a planet, moving around it, sweeps over a fixed area in a given interval of time.

Law of definite proportions: A chemical compound is always found to be made up of the same elements combined together in the same ratio by weight.

Law of Floatation: for a body to float, the following conditions must be fulfilled: (1) The weight of the body should be equal to the weight of the water displaced. (2) The centre of gravity

of the body and that of the liquid displaced should be in the same straight line.

Lenz’s Law: When there is change in the magnetic flux linked with a circuit, the electric current induced in the circuit will have a magnetic field opposing the change producing it.

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation: states that “Every portion of matter attracts or tends to approach every other portion of matter in the universe with a force proportional to the masses and inversely as the square of the distance.”

Newton’s First Law of Motion: “A body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled by an external force to change that state.”

Newton’s Second Law of Motion: “The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction of the force.”

Newton’s Third Law of Motion: “To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.”
Newton’s Law of Cooling: states that the rate of loss of heat of a hot body is directly proportional to the difference of temperature between the body and the surroundings and is independent of the nature of the body.

Ohm’s Law: states that the ratio of the potential difference between the ends of a conductor and the current flowing in the conductor is constant, e.g., for a potential difference of E volts and a current I amperes, the resistance R,  in ohms is equal to E/I.

Principle of conservation of energy: It states that, in any system, energy cannot be created or destroyed; the sum of mass and energy remains constant.

Snell’s Law: It states that the ratio of the sine of angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction remains constant for any two given media.

Specific heat of substance: The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram.  of a substance through 1°C.

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The FIFA World Cup, also called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the men’s national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport’s global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the first tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not contested because of World War II.

The current format of the tournament involves 32 teams competing for the title at venues within the host nation(s) over a period of about a month – this phase is often called the World Cup Finals. A qualification phase, which currently takes place over the preceding three years, is used to determine which teams qualify for the tournament together with the host nation(s).

Winners List

Here are the full list of winners of the previous FIFA World Cups. Click on the highlighted text for more information about each host city and participating country. Are you looking for results for South Africa 2010?

Year Host Country Winner Score
1930 Uruguay Uruguay Uruguay 4-2 Argentina
1934 Italy Italy Italy 2-1 Czechoslovakia
1938 France Italy Italy 4-2 Hungary
1942 not held
1946 not held
1950 Brazil Uruguay Uruguay 2-1 Brazil
1954 Switzerland Germany Germany 3-2 Hungary
1958 Sweden Brazil Brazil 5-2 Sweden
1962 Chile Brazil Brazil 3-1 Czechoslovakia
1966 England England England 4-2 Germany
1970 Mexico Brazil Brazil 4-1 Italy
1974 Germany Germany Germany 2-1 Holland
1978 Argentina Argentina Argentina 3-1 Holland
1982 Spain Italy Italy 3-1 Germany
1986 Mexico Argentina Argentina 3-2 Germany
1990 Italy Germany Germany 1-0 Argentina
1994 US Brazil Brazil 3-2 Italy
1998 France France France 3-0 Brazil
2002 Japan / S. Korea Brazil Brazil 2-0 Germany
2006 Germany Italy Italy 1-1 (5-3) France
2010 South Africa


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Latest General Knowledge

Idea of East Asia Summit:
The idea was mooted in 1991 by then Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad. It provides India the forum to carve out for itself a larger East Asian strategic presence and taking forward our vision for the future. Thrust areas of EAS include (i)
energy, Environment, Climate Change & Sustainable Development, (ii) Education, (iii) Finance, (iv) Natural Disaster Mitigation and (v) Avian Influenza. Four summits of EAS have been held so far. First summit was held in Kua Lalumpur in December 2005.”

India ASEAN Trade:
The trade has grown from US$ 2.4 billion in 1990 to US$ 44.66 billion in 2008-09 and the targets to make it reach US$ 70 billion within next two years (by 2012)

Universal Service Obligation Fund
Indian Telegraph (Amendment) Act, 2003 gave the statutory status to the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) and it was passed in December 2003

Types of Some Missiles in India
Agni is family of Medium to Intercontinental range ballistic missiles, Prithvi is tactical surface-to-surface, short-range ballistic missile (SRBM), Akash is medium range surface-to-air missile, Nag is a third generation“Fire-and-forget“ anti-tank missile

Galton Whistle:
Human can listen only the frequencies below 20 kHz. However animals like dogs, cats, dolphins, bats, and mice can listen above this limit. This principle was used by Galton who produced the ultrasonic waves by blowing a whistle. For human these whistle appears silent, while dogs and cats can listen it. It is used in training of dogs and cats.

Composition of NHRC
Chairperson must have been a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; one Member who is or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court; one Member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court; two Members to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights, Chairperson of the National Commission for Minorities, and the National Commission for Women shall be deemed to be Members of the Commission (The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993)
The appointment committee consists of Prime Minister as Chairperson, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Home Minister, leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, leader of opposition in Rajya Sabha & Deputy chairman of Rajya Sabha.

Subjects of some amendments:
55th : statehood to Arunachal Pradesh, 56th: setting up new state of Goa and separation of Daman & Diu , 57th : special arrangements with regard to reservation for scheduled tribes in NE states Arunachal, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya. Article 332 amended for this reason, 58th: authorizes president to publish an authoritative translation of constitution, 59th : empowered the government to impose emergency in Punjab

Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar’s comment on Indian Febderation:
the use of the word Union is deliberate. The Drafting Committee wanted to make it clear that though India was to be a federation, the federation was not a result of an agreement by the States to join in the federation and that the federation not being the result of an agreement no state has a right to secede from it. Though the country and the people may be divided into different states for convenience of administration the whole country is one integral whole, its people a single people living under a single imperium derived from a single source – Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar

Some Articles related to Panchayats:
“243A. Gram Sabha
243B. Constitution of Panchayats.
243C. Composition of panchayats.
243D. Reservation of seats.
243E. Duration of Panchayats etc”

Principal Organs of United Nations:
Formerly UN had six principal active organs. UN Trusteeship Council suspended its operations in 1994. The five organs are:
UN General Assembly
UN Security Council
UN Economic and Social Council
UN Secretariat
International Court of Justice

Word Heritage Site in Two States:
Kalka is in Panchkula Haryana and Shimla in Himachal Pradesh. Kalka Shimla Railway spreads in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, some other sites: Valley of Flowers National Park is located in Uttarakhand, Mountain Railways of India are in Darjeeling, Sundarbans National Park isn West Bengal and Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is in Gujarat.

NDTV and Ministry of Tourism 7 wonders of India:
1.Sun Temple, Konark
3.Jaisalmer Fort
4.Red Fort
5.Nalanda University
6.Dholavira Site
7.Meenakshi Temple”

Oldest Functionary Parliamentary institution
Please note that Althing of Iceland is the oldest functioning parliamentary institution in the world established in 930 AD

Top 5 Languages of India by speakers strength:
1–Hindi 422,048,642 Percentage of Total : 41.03
2–Bengali 83,369,769 Percentage of Total : 8.11
3–Telugu 74,002,856 Percentage of Total : 7.19
4–Marathi 71,936,894 Percentage of Total : 6.99
5–Tamil 60,793,814 Percentage of Total : 5.91
6–Urdu 51,536,111 Percentage of Total : 5.01
(source Census 2001)

Least Spoken Languages:
Least spoken language is Sanskrit (only few people in following places speak Sanskrit: Mattur in Karnataka,Jhiri (Rajgadh) in Madhya Pradesh, Ganoda (Banswada) in Rajasthan, Bawali (Bagapat) in Uttar Pradesh , Mohad (Narasinhpur) in Madhya Pradesh. Bodo is next to Sanskrit and spoken by 1,350,478 people.”

Owners of some newspapers in India:
The Times of India, ET : Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.
Dainik Bhaskar : DB Crop Ltd.
Dainik Jagran : Jagaran Prakashan Ltd.
Malayala Manorama : Malayala Manorama Group
Eenadu : Ramoji Group.
Ananda Bazar Patrika : Ananda Publishers
Hindustan Times: HT Media Ltd
Sakshi : Y.S. Jagan Mohan Reddy
Mathrubhumi : The Mathrubhumi Group
Gujarat Samachar : Lok Prakashan Ltd.
Dinakaran : SUN TV
The Telegraph: Ananda Publishers
Prajavani, Deccan Herald : The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited
New Indian Express : Express Publications Ltd.
The Statesman: The Statesman Ltd.
The Hindu Business Line: Kasturi & Sons Ltd.
Business Standard: Business Standard Ltd. (BSL)

Location of ICAO & IATA:
International Civil Aviation Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations, located Montreal, Quebec, Canada, established 1947, headquarters Montreal Canada, Current Head: Raymond Benjamin. Please note that IATA ( International Air Transport Association) is also located in Montreal.

Some points from latest SIPRI data March 2010
“Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) March 2010
1. Largest arms supplier of the world: USA (30% market share)
2. Growth of global arms sale 92005-2009) = 22%
3. largest importer of American weapons : South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and Israel.
4. China`s share in Global Defense sales: 9%
5. India`s sale in Global Defense Sales: 7%
6. China`s 89% import originated from Russia
7. India`s 77% import from Russia, UK supplied 8% and Israel 5% (conventional defense equipment)

Work field of UNFPA:
UNFPA supports programs in140 countries in four areas, the Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the sub-Saharan Africa

Father of India Print Media:
James Augustus Hickey started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise or the Bengal Gazette in January, 1780.

October Revolution:
Another name of Russian Revolution or part of Russian Revolution of 1917also known as October coup or the Uprising of 25th.

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LatesT General Knowledge

Measurements of Sports

Badminton Court: 13.40 m x 5.18 m
Net: 1.524 m high
Shuttle: 4.73 to 5.50 gms
Cricket Pitch: 20.12 metres
Bat: 96.5 cm length and 10.8 cm width
Ball: 155.9 to 163 gms
Derby Course Route length: 2400 metres (or) 11/2 miles
Football Field: 100 x 64 m to 110 x 75 m
Hockey Field: 100 x 55 yards to 100 x 60 yards
Ball: 5.50 ounces to 5.75 ounces
Kabaddi Field: 13 x 10 meters
Khokho Field: 34 x 10 m to 34 x 16 metres
Lawn Tennis Court: 23.77 x 8.23 metres
Ball: 56.7 gms to 58.5 gms. (weight); 6.35 cm to 6.67 cms (diameter)
Marathon Race Route Length: 42,195 m-26 miles, 385 yards
Table Tennis Table: 275 cm x 152.5 cm, 76 cm above the ground (floor)
Ball: 37.2 to 38.2 millimeter (diameter); 9.40 to 9.53 gms.
Volleyball Court: 18 m x 9 m
Net: 9.5 m x 1 m x 2.43 m

Famous Sports personalities

Field Person
The first Indian woman to swim across the English Channel Miss. Arati Shah
The first Indian to win world Billiards Trophy Wilson Jones
The first to cross the Damelles by swimming Mihir Sen
The first to conquer Everest Sherpa Tenzing (1953)
The first to sail round the world Megellan
The first person to win Wimbledon title five times Bjorn Borg
The first woman who conquered Everest Jungo Table (Japan)
The first person to reach North Pole Robert Peary
First woman Olympic Medallist (Weight Lifting) Karnam Malleswari (2000)
The first person to reach South Pole Amundsen
The first Indian to win All England Badminton Championship Prakash Padukone
The first Indian woman to conquer Everest Bichendri Pal
The first an to climb Everest twice Nawang Gombu
The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK)
The first Indian woman to conquer Everest Bichendri Pal
The first an to climb Everest twice Nawang Gombu
The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK)
The first woma
The first Indian woman to conquer Everest Bichendri Pal
The first an to climb Everest twice Nawang Gombu
The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK)
The first woman to reach North pole Ann Bancroft
The first woman to sail non stop around the world alone Kaycottee
The first deaf & dumb to cross the strait of Gibraltar Taranath Shenoy (India)
The first woman to climb Mt. Everest twice Santosh Yadav (India)
The first black player to win the Wimbledon men’s singles title Arthur Ashe (US)
The first person to win the Palk Strait ocean swimming contest Baidyanath

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Why do the same photos taken from the same camera take up different memory space?

Why do the same photos taken from the same camera take up different memory space?


Kottayam, Kerala

Some pictures take up less storage space in memory because patterns within the picture mean they can be represented more compactly.

A digital picture is made up of many small coloured dots called pixels. These pixels are packed so closely together that we do not see them individually, but rather they merge into each other to create the picture. Most digital cameras take photographs that are made up of millions of pixels.

Each pixel is represented by a series of numbers that contain information about the colour and brightness of the pixel

Mathematical techniques called compression algorithms are used to reduce the memory space required. The algorithms use patterns in the picture to reduce memory size. For instance, if there are 10 white pixels in a row, it is more compact to store this information as a code that means ‘10 white pixels’ rather than simply repeating the same information for each of the white pixels. The algorithms are more sophisticated than this, but essentially they search for all sorts of patterns to make the information storage smaller.

Simple pictures can be stored in less space than complicated pictures. A simple picture has simple relationships among the pixels and these can be represented by simple codes. You can try this by taking a photograph of a white page and one of an ordinary scene. The memory size of the photo of the white page will be much smaller. No two photos will be exactly the same, and there will be different amounts of compression in each.

The compression algorithm may also approximate some parts of the picture to reduce the memory storage. This may lead to the loss of some of the detail in the picture, but often it cannot be detected by eye. Such algorithms are called “lossy,” and the ‘jpeg’ format commonly used in cameras is an example of this type.

. When a photograph is stored in memory, it means that the numbers representing the pixels need to be stored. Therefore each picture requires the storage of many millions of numbers. However, large picture files are a problem since they take up more memory and are slower to copy and transmit.


Educational Consultant

IID Community College


Courtsey: The Hindu

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How Cash Reserve Ratio affects loan rates?

How Cash Reserve Ratio affects loan rates?

The Cash Reserve Ratio is the amount of funds that the banks are bound to keep with Reserve bank of India. Present CRR is 6.0 per cent. It has been raised by 25 basis points from 5.75 to 6.00. RBI uses the method of CRR hike to drain out the excess liquidity from the banks. This is because; the banks will now have to keep more money with the Reserve Bank of India. On this money banks don`t earn any interest. Since they don’t earn any interest, the banks are left with an option to increase the interest rates. In this question, the word `substantially` has been used. The question wants you to know this basic principle. The increased rate may or may not be seen sooner or later in case of the present hike of 25 basis points, but if RBI hikes this rate substantially, banks will have to increase the rates. The home loans, car loans and EMI of floating Rate loans increase. The latest move by RBI of increasing the CRR will be sucking excess liquidity of 12500 crores of Rupees. This is the extra amount which now the banks will keep in the Central Bank.

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How are Rupee-Dollar rates determined?

How are Rupee-Dollar rates determined?
The value of a currency against another is based on demand. Greater demand makes a currency stronger and vice versa. When there is a good inflow of dollars in India, the value of dollar will go down and value of Rupees will go up, because Rupees will be required to convert all dollars.
However, there are many determinants of the exchange rates of a particular currency against another currency. If these determinant factors are favorable to a country, there is a possibility that value of that country’s currency will rise.
Some of these determinants are:
  • International Parity Conditions
  • Balance of Payments
  • Economic Policies of a government (Fiscal Policy, Budget, Investment policy and Foreign Trade Policies) and a country’s central Bank (Cost of money, interest rates, monetary policy)
  • General macroeconomic conditions of the country
  • Inflation levels and trends
  • Balance of Trade
  • Market Psychology & perception
  • General political stability

There are two types of exchange rate regimes. One is fixed exchange rate regime where the exchange rates are decided by the government. Another is floating exchange rate regime (an example is China, but now the Chinese leaders say that it will switch to Floating Rate regime very soon). In most countries Floating Exchange Rate regime prevails. In floating exchange rate regime, the combined forces of the market and the above determinants decide the exchange rate.

The International parity conditions also include interest rate parity, Domestic fisher effect and international fisher effect.

The balance of trade affects the rates indicating a demand for a currency. Trade surplus may have a positive impact and trade deficit may have a negative impact on country’s currency. Inflation weakens the domestic currency. (However, in certain situations the inflation may lead to strengthening of the currency in anticipation of moves of central bank to hike the interest rates). The Economic viability and productivity of a country positively influences the value of its currency. Further, Internal, regional, and international political conditions and events have a profound effect on international currency markets. Market Psychology & market perception also have profound impact on Currency rates

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What is the difference between debit card & credit card?

What is the difference between debit card & credit card?

Both Debit card and credit card and other cards like smart card are plastic money. Plastic money refers to plastic cards which play the role of medium of payment. In credit cards the customer (credit card holder) can avail the facility of buying goods and services at a Point of Sale (POS) from merchant establishments (provided such arrangements exist) without making a prior payment. This credit facility is provided by the issuer bank to the customer for a specific period.
However, in the case of debit cards, the customer (debit card holder) can buy goods and services by automatically debiting the payments to card holder’s banks account.

In case of a credit card, the card holder uses credit line by making drawings within a specified or sanctioned limit and makes payment on receiving the bill along with the applicable charges and interests.
In case of debit cards, the card holder uses the balance in his / her own bank account and payment is made immediately on purchases.

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With which country India shares longest border?

With which country India shares longest border?
India has 15,106.7 km of land border and a coastline of 7,516.6 km including island territories. The length of our land borders with neighbouring countries is as under :
Name of the country:Length of the border (in km)
  • Bangladesh:4,096.7
  • China:3,488
  • Pakistan:3,323
  • Nepal:1,751
  • Myanmar:1,643
  • Bhutan: 699
  • Afghanistan: 106
  • Total :15,106.7

Source: Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management)

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Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta Sindhu?

Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta sindhu ?

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.
Scholars are not of same opinion on the names and identity of the seven rivers of Sapta sindhu. Most of the scholars agree that the heartland of Rigvedic Aryans was modern Afghanistan, Punjab (Pakistan & India), Haryana & Rajasthan. Further, Kubha River (Kabul), Suwastu (Swat) Kramu (Kurram) & Gomati (Gomal) Rivers have also got place in texts. The Ganga & Yamuna which were mentioned in later Vedic texts indicated the eastern boundary of the Sapta Saindhava Region.
There is a verse in Nadistuti sukta of Rigveda , hymn of praise of rivers which mentions the following 10 rivers: Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Marudvrdha , Vitasta , Arjikiya , Susoma. The Shutudri was Sutlej, Parushni was Ravi, Asikni was Chenab and Vitasta was Jhelum.
The majority of the scholars believe that Sindhu & Saraswati (located in Rajasthan) were the most popular and sacred rivers of that era. Some scholars are of the opinion that the hymns in praise of the Saraswati are probably some of the oldest, composed more than 8000 years ago. The 5 rivers Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Vitasta, Vipas all were tributaries of Sindhu River. Together with Sarasawti and Sindhu, these 5 rivers constituted the Sapta Sindhu.
However saraswati has been mentioned as saptasvasa, which means she with 7 sisters. So, This further leads to a group of 8 Rivers.

With Which Countries India Has a Free Trade Agreement ?

Free Trade Agreement negotiations with ASEAN started in 2002, and came into force from January 1, 2009.

India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement:
India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of India and the President of Sri Lanka on 28 December 1999.

Thailand & Malaysia:
India has a separate Free Trade Agreement with Thailand and Malaysia other than the India-ASEAN FTA.

CEPA with Singapore and South Korea:
India and South Korea had signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement in August 2009. This was the second CEPA signed by India, the other being with Singapore. This was also India’s first bilateral trade agreement with an OECD country.

Apart from the above, India has PTA (Preferential Trade Agreements with) Chile, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal & MERCOSUR
The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) came into force from 1st January, 2006. India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are categorized as Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal are categorized as Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS). Afghanistan which became the eighth member of SAARC during the 14th SAARC Summit held on 3-4 April 2007 in New Delhi is due to become a party to the SAFTA Agreement as an LDC member.

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What is a court of Record?

What is a court of Record?
A court of record is a court whose acts and proceedings are enrolled for perpetual memory and testimony. These records are used with a high authority and their truth cannot be questioned. In Indian constitution article 129 make the Supreme Court the ‘court of record”. Article 129 says: Supreme Court to be a court of record.-The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.

Article 215 empowers the High Courts of te states to be courts of record.

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Forbes’ Top Philanthropists from India are all Women

In the list of Forbes’, containing Asia Pacific’s Philanthropists, four Indians have been included and all these four Indian Philanthropists are women. Biotech major Biocon’s CEO Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw and Anu Aga of Thermex got the leading place in the list.The two others making it to the business magazine’s `48 Heroes of Philanthropy’ list are Kiran Nadar, collector of contemporary Indian arts

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Indian Languages-Principal Languages of India

Principal Languages of India

India has 22 languages which have been given the grade of National Languages.

Assamese :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Assam.

Bengali :

  • It is one of the leading Indo-Aryan language and is die official language of W. Bengal-Gujarati.
  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Gujarat.

Hindi :

  • The largest spoken Indo-Aryan language.
  • It is the official language of the Government of India.
  • Various dialects of Hindi are Khariboli, Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri.
  • In 6 States and UTs, Hindi is the official language.

Kannada :

  • It belongs to the Dravidian family & is the official langauge of Karnataka.

Kashmiri :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language.
  • It is often mistaken as the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.

Konkani :

  • It is the official language of Goa and is spoken by thousands of Konkanis in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Malayalam :

  • Belong to the Dravidian family and is the official language of Kerala.

Manipuri :

  • It is the official language of Manipur.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Marathi :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Maharashtra.

Nepali :

  • It is spoken in parts of UP, Bihar, W. Bengal, Assam, etc.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Oriya :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Orissa.

Punjabi :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Punjab.

Sanskrit :

  • It is one of the earliest languages of the world.
  • Early Sanksrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit and covers the period between 2000 and 500 BC.

Sindhi :

  • It is an Indo-Aryan language.
  • It was added in 1967 by 21st Amendment.

Tamil :

  • It is the oldest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Tamil Nadu.

Telegu :

  • It is numerically the biggest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.

Urdu :

  • It is die offiical langauge of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Modern Urdu developed due to the efforts of Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898).

Dogri :

  • It is generally spoken in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu.
  • It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit and Pahari Dogri languages.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Maithili :

  • It is chiefly spoken in the Maithilianchal region of Bihar.
  • It is the second State language of Bihar.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Santhali :

  • It is chiefly spoken in the area of Chhotanagpur Plateau in Jharkhand and Bihar.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Bodo :

  • It is chiefly spoken in Assam and its adjoining North-East States.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

Comparative Strengths of Scheduled Languages (Census 2001) :

Mother Tongue % of Total Population
Hindi 41.03
Nepali 0.28
Bengali 8.11
Assamese 1.28
Urdu 5.01
Punjabi 2.83
Telugu 7.19
Kashmiri 0.54
Tamil 5.91
Maithili 1.18
Santhali 0.63
Konkani 0.24
Marathi 6.99
Gujarati 4.48
Kannada 3.69
Malayalam 3.21
Oriya 3.20
Sindhi 0.25
Manipuri 0.14
Sanskrit Negligible
Dogri 0.22
Bodo 0.13

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General Knowledge Quiz Series this week

1.  In which country did the ‘sauna’ originate?

2.  On which day and which year did America declare itself an independent country?

3. Which is lighter, gold or plastic?

4. What should you say in English if someone sneezes?.

5. How many cents are there in a Australian dollar?

6.  Who wrote ‘Animal Farm’?

7. Name five methods of transport?.

8. Name ten countries where English is an official language.

9 Name ten parts of the body lower than the neck.

10. Which explorer discovered the sea-route to India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope?

11. What is the currency of Greece?

12.Which country is popularly called ‘The Land of the Maple Leaf’?

13. In Britain who would you give a tip to?

14. Name three festivals celebrated in English-speaking countries?

15. “A good husband should be deaf and a good wife blind”. What are these sayings called?

16.What do English people say before a meal?

17. Which U.S President was assassinated in 1865?

18. Which is longer the Danube or Volga river?

19. When did England last win the football world cup?

20 Which planet is named after the Roman god of war?


1 – Finland

2 – 4th July 1776

3 – Plastic

4 – Bless you.

5 – 100

6 – George Orwell

7 – Train, car, coach, bus, tram, ship, boat, motorcycle etc.

8 – England, Ireland, USA, Canada, India, Kenya, Singapore, Barbados, South Africa, Pakistan etc.

9 – Chest, leg, arm, shoulder, foot, knee, fingers, toes, thigh, shin, ankle etc.

10 – Vasco de Gama

11 – Drachma

12 – Canada

13 -Waiter/Waitress, taxi driver, hairdresser

14 – Christmas, Easter, St. Valentines day, New Years day, Thanksgiving day etc.

15 – Proverbs

16 – Nothing!

17 – Abraham Lincoln

18 – Volga

19 – 1966

20 – Mars

Filed under: General Knowledge, General Knowledge Quiz Series this week,

RSS Article of The Week

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RSS Books News,Rviews and Authors Interviews

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Periodicals Articles Alert

Bachhon ko Nishulk Aur Anivaarya Shiksha Ka adhikaar Adhiniyam 2009, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1823-1825 ; E-Kachara Prabandhan: Ek Chunauti Aur Upaye, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1832-1834; Vitamin Truths & lies,Reader Digest,May2010,P.52-56; Surface Area and Volume, Education Trend,May210,P.65 ; Metals and Non Metals, Education Trend,May210,P.77; The rise of Nationalism in Europe, Education Trend,May210,P.91; Linear Equations in two variables, Education Today,May2010,P.5-15,Federalism, Sectors of Indian Economy and Water Resources Education Today,May2010,P.16-29 ; Acids, Bases and Salts, Education Today,May2010,P.30; Prehistoric Creatures,Tell Me Why,May2010; Disappearing Herbs,Out Look,May24,2010,P.56

Periodicals Arrival in the Library