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Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta Sindhu?

Which were the 7 rivers of Sapta sindhu ?

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.
Scholars are not of same opinion on the names and identity of the seven rivers of Sapta sindhu. Most of the scholars agree that the heartland of Rigvedic Aryans was modern Afghanistan, Punjab (Pakistan & India), Haryana & Rajasthan. Further, Kubha River (Kabul), Suwastu (Swat) Kramu (Kurram) & Gomati (Gomal) Rivers have also got place in texts. The Ganga & Yamuna which were mentioned in later Vedic texts indicated the eastern boundary of the Sapta Saindhava Region.
There is a verse in Nadistuti sukta of Rigveda , hymn of praise of rivers which mentions the following 10 rivers: Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Marudvrdha , Vitasta , Arjikiya , Susoma. The Shutudri was Sutlej, Parushni was Ravi, Asikni was Chenab and Vitasta was Jhelum.
The majority of the scholars believe that Sindhu & Saraswati (located in Rajasthan) were the most popular and sacred rivers of that era. Some scholars are of the opinion that the hymns in praise of the Saraswati are probably some of the oldest, composed more than 8000 years ago. The 5 rivers Sutudri, Parusni, Asikni, Vitasta, Vipas all were tributaries of Sindhu River. Together with Sarasawti and Sindhu, these 5 rivers constituted the Sapta Sindhu.
However saraswati has been mentioned as saptasvasa, which means she with 7 sisters. So, This further leads to a group of 8 Rivers.

With Which Countries India Has a Free Trade Agreement ?

Free Trade Agreement negotiations with ASEAN started in 2002, and came into force from January 1, 2009.

India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement:
India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of India and the President of Sri Lanka on 28 December 1999.

Thailand & Malaysia:
India has a separate Free Trade Agreement with Thailand and Malaysia other than the India-ASEAN FTA.

CEPA with Singapore and South Korea:
India and South Korea had signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement in August 2009. This was the second CEPA signed by India, the other being with Singapore. This was also India’s first bilateral trade agreement with an OECD country.

Apart from the above, India has PTA (Preferential Trade Agreements with) Chile, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal & MERCOSUR
The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) came into force from 1st January, 2006. India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are categorized as Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal are categorized as Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS). Afghanistan which became the eighth member of SAARC during the 14th SAARC Summit held on 3-4 April 2007 in New Delhi is due to become a party to the SAFTA Agreement as an LDC member.

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Focus on increasing college enrolment – Sibal

Human Resource Development (HRD) Minister Kapil Sibal recently called for substantially increasing the number of students joining colleges for higher studies after completing their schooling.

“In India, nearly 220 million students go to schools and around 14 million go to colleges. Our Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), that is the percentage of students going from schools to colleges, is only 12.4 percent,” said Sibal here at a seminar on education reforms.

He added, “This is a matter of worry as in other developed countries GER is not less than 40 to 50 percent. If we talk about the research sector, then in Europe for every million people not less than 6,000 go for research, in the US this number is 4,700 whereas in India it is just 156.”

He said that we have to make sure that by 2020 India’s GER increases to 30 percent.

“At presently 480 universities and 22,000 colleges are fulfilling the need of 12.4 percent GER. If we have to reach a mark of 30 percent GER, in the next 10 years we need around 700 to 1,000 universities and nearly 45,000 colleges,” he said.

He said the definition of wealth has changed globally and it now refers to ideas, innovation and creativity that are intellectual assets.

Sibal said changes are needed in school education as well.

He said that no government can run schools efficiently therefore there should be a transfer of ownership to community from the government.

“Under the Right to Education Act, we have impressed on the need of involving 75 percent people from the locality, out of which 50 percent should be women, in a school management committee. Ownership should be gradually transferred to the community and people, especially mothers ofstudents, should decide a school’s operations,” said Sibal.

Talking on exam reforms, he said, “We need to move away from the examination system to creativity. There should be no exams or boards. We require a constant evaluation not for those skills that a student does not have but for those that he actually possesses.” IANS

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Young World Quiz


Young Word Quiz

Young World Quiz (November 10, 2009)





Teletubbies : In four colours


1. Which is the only U.S. State to have the last letter of the English alphabet in its name?

2. In astrology, which three zodiac signs are called the ‘Fire Signs’?

3. Name the Asian Capital cities that have hosted the Summer Olympics.

Photo : AFP

The Borg-Warner trophy : A sporting prize.


4. Who was the maternal grandmother of Rajiv Gandhi?

5. Which famous African city is served by the Jomo Kenyatta Airport?

6. Which great emperor was born Temujin?

7. Which list of religious and moral imperatives is also called ‘Decalogue’?

8. In Teletubbies, who is coloured purple?

Photo : The Hindu Photo Library

Rajiv Gandhi : Who was his maternal grandmother?


9. Whose skull features in William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’?

10. If it was Arthur Conan Doyle for Sherlock Holmes, who was it for Lord Peter Wimsey?

11. What dubious distinction does the stonefish have?

12. With which famous sporting event would one link the Borg-Warner Trophy?

13. Which ‘exclusive’ society of people with high IQ gets its name from the Latin for table?

14. Meningitis affects which part of the body?

15. Which leader was fatally wounded by John Wilkes Booth while watching “Our American Cousin”?

Answer to Young World Quiz (November 10, 2009)

V.V. RAMANANAnswers:

1. Arizona
2. Aries, Leo and Sagittarius
3. Tokyo and Seoul
4. Kamala Nehru
5. Nairobi
6. Genghis Khan
7. The Ten Commandments
8. Tinky Winky
9. Yorick
10. Dorothy L. Sayers
11. It is considered the most venomous fish in the world
12. Indianapolis 500 automobile race
13. Mensa
14. Brain
15. Abraham Lincoln.

Young World Quiz (November 03, 2009)







Photo: S. Subramanium

Ballet : Beauty and grace.


1. On this day, in 1957 saw the first acknowledged living being go into a space orbit. Name the animal.

2. After which explorer is the strait immediately south of mainland Chile and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego named?

3. The star Alpha Canis Majoris is commonly called?

4. The name of Elisha Graves Otis is associated with which locomotion device seen in many buildings etc?

5. Which U.S. State is nicknamed Sunshine State?

6. According to the Bible, how old was Methuselah?

Photo : Bloomberg

On the hood : The Spirit of Ecstasy.


7. If your car had the Spirit of Ecstasy, you would be driving a?

8. In Greek mythology, who flew too close to the sun and melted his wings?

9. Which European city recently lost out the chance to host the 2016 Summer Olympics?

10. What are the two main ingredients in the confection Meringue?

Photo : AP

The Beatles : They love me yeah! yeah!


11. Which Sherlock Holmes story has the curious incident of the dog in the night-time?

12. What does a jete mean to a ballerina?

13. In gymnastics, what is the dimension of the carpeted area on which floor exercises are held?

14. On which Mediterranean island was Napoleon Bonaparte born?

15. Which of the Beatles was born Richard Starkey?

Answer to Young World Quiz (November 03, 2009)

V.V. RAMANANAnswers:

1. Laika
2. Ferdinand Magellan
3. Sirius A or Dog Star
4. Elevators
5. Florida
6. 969 years
7. Rolls Royce
8. Icarus
9. Madrid
10. Egg white and sugar
11. Silver Blaze
12. A leap
13. 12m x 12m square
14. Corsica
15. Ringo Starr.

Young World Quiz (October 6, 2009)

1. Name the Swiss-French architect, who designed modern Chandigarh, born on this date in 1887.

2. Which popular literary bear was once referred to as Edward Bear?

3. Who built the Tughlaqabad Fort?

4. Name the overeager Wilderness Explorer in Pixar’s “Up”.

5. With which Gharana was the recently deceased Gangubai Hangal associated?

6. In Peanuts comics, what instrument does Schroeder play?

7. In the world of finance, what does portfolio mean?

8. What is the name of the pet dinosaur of the Flintstones?

9. Which bustling Indian city is also called “City of Nizams”?

10. In which country are the cities of Graz and Linz?

11. What is the anatomical name for the calf bone?

12. With which animal would a cynomaniac be obsessed?

13. How does the world know the performer Gordon Sumner?

14. Why is sleeping on the side suggested as one way to ‘treat’ snoring?

15. Which bestselling novel was originally titled “The Summer of the Shark”?

Answer to Young World Quiz (October 6, 2009)

>Answers: 1. Le Corbusier; 2. Winnie the Pooh; 3. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty; 4. Russell; 5. Kirana Gharana; 6. Piano; 7. A collection of investments held by institutions or a private individual; 8. Dino; 9. Hyderabad; 10. Austria; 11. Fibula; 12. Dogs; 13. Sting; 14. It would prevent the tongue from blocking the throat; 15. ‘Jaws”.

Young World Quiz (October 13, 2009)

1. On this date in 1884, reckoning of time was standardised in a way. How?

2. Name the great Australian swimmer nicknamed ‘Thorpedo’ born on this date in 1982.

3. Apart from India, which two other Asian Annex 2 States are yet to sign and ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty?

4. Generally which part of the body is affected by lumbago?

5. Who has been India’s longest-serving Prime Minister?

6. United Plankton Pictures Inc. produces which popular cartoon series on Nick?

7. Why did Barbie and Ken split up in 2004?

8. Who wrote The Old Curiosity Shop?

9. Whose horse was Shadowfax?

10. Expand ISDN as used in computing.

11. In which decade of the 20th Century did the Titanic sink?

12. How many pairs of ribs among three normal humans?

13. How does one commonly refer to the Italian cookie ‘savoiardi’?

14. What are ‘carcinogens’?

15. Name the parents of Zeus.

Answer to Young World Quiz (October 13, 2009)


1. Greenwich was established as the universal time meridian of longitude
2. Ian Thorpe
3. North Korea and Pakistan
4. Back
5. Jawaharlal Nehru
6. SpongeBob SquarePants
7. To spend ‘quality time’ away from each other
8. Charles Dickens
9. Gandalf
10. Integrated Services Digital Network
11. Second (1912)
12. 36
13. Lady finger biscuits
14. An agent that causes cancer or in the increase of its propagation
15. Cronus and Rhea.

Young World Quiz (October 20, 2009)

1. Which World Heritage Site, at Bennelong Point in Sydney, was inaugurated on this date in 1973 by Queen Elizabeth II?

2. Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází on October 20, 1819, is one of the three central figures of which faith?

3. Who wrote ‘Abhirami Anthadhi’?

4. In which sport would one use ‘bogey’ and ‘fore’?

5. Which name for a type of soil comes from the Latin for “to wash against”?

6. In which sea is the mouth of the Nile?

7. Which three-letter abbreviation is written informally to indicate indebtedness?

8. Name the Austrian author of ‘Bambi’.

9. After whom is the SI derived unit of pressure and stress named?

10. In which European country does the Mistral blow?

11. What is the tripod which supports an artist’s canvas called?

12. Where does Dr. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan work as a structural biologist?

13. Which of these is not a chromatic pigment: Gray, green or blue?

14. Name the only State in the U.S. to be split by one of the five ‘Great Lakes’.

15. What item of clothing/fashion, with a country’s name associated with it, is made from the plaited leaves of the toquilla straw plant?

Answer to Young World Quiz (October 20, 2009)


1. Sydney Opera House
2. Bahá’í Faith
3. Abhirami Bhattar
4. Golf
5. Alluvium
6. Mediterranean Sea
7. IOU
8. Felix Salten
9. Blaise Pascal
10. France
11. Easel
12. MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England
13. Gray
14. Michigan
15. Panama hats.

Young World Quiz (October 27, 2009)

1. Simple one to begin with. Who created Asterix and his world?

2. Name the magazine that brought the world of the Gauls to us way back in 1959.

3. In how many adventures have our heroes featured so far (including the new adventure released last week)?

4. Who are Astronomix and Vanilla?

5. Name the only two adventures not to have the name of Asterix in the title.

6. Which was the first album and which was the one the creators working on Goscinny passed away in 1977?

7. Name the translators who have done a fantastic job of bringing the adventures alive complete with ‘punny’ jokes to millions of English readers.

8. ‘Asterix and the Banquet’ gave us, depending on the translation, Ideefix, Kutta Bhaunkix or Snupix. How do we better know this integral character?

9. Why can’t Obelix have magic potion when the rest of the villagers can take it?

10. In the context of English versions of the books, what is so special about the plate on Page 35 of the first adventure?

11. Name all the three live-action films made on the adventures of our friends.

12. Over the last 50 years, many a memorable name has been part of the series. So in which book do we meet: (i): Ptenisnet, (ii): Anticlimax, (iii): Cassius Ceramix?

13. Our heroes have also made a visit to our country. In which adventure?

14. What can one visit at Plailly, about 35 km north of Paris, in the département of Oise?

15. Which was the first adventure to be written and drawn by Albert Uderzo

Answer to Young World Quiz (October 27, 2009)


1. Rene Goscinny and Albert Uderzo
2. ‘Pilote’
3. Thirty four translated into 107 languages or dialects
4. The father of Asterix and mother of Obelix
5. ‘The Mansions of the Gods’ and ‘Obelix & Co’
6. ‘Asterix the Gaul’ and ‘Asterix in Belgium’
7. Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge
8. Dogmatix
9. Because of falling into a cauldron of the potion as a kid
10. It was redrawn by Albert Uderzo’s brother Marcel in 1970 because the original was lost
11. ‘Asterix and Obelix take on Caesar’, ‘Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra’ and ‘Asterix at the Olympic Games’
12. (i): ‘Asterix the Gladiator’, (ii): ‘Asterix in Britain’, (iii): ‘Asterix and the Big Fight’
13. ‘Asterix and the Magic Carpet’
14. Parc Asterix
15. ‘Asterix and the Great Divide’

In the Young World quiz dated September 29, question 12 was ‘In which State is the place where Gautama the Buddha attained Nirvana?’ The answer should have been Uttar Pradesh and not as mentioned. The error is regretted.

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Bush favours UN Security Council seat for India

 Bush favours UN Security Council seat for India 

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Nobel winner likes masala dosas

I want you to take a look at: Nobel winner likes masala dosas 

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China vs India: Military might

I want you to take a look at: China vs India: Military might 

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KV Baramulla Library Books Catalogue


Books Catalogue (KV Baramulla).pdf-Download

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Library Visit By shri S.C. Khajuriya

Library Visit By Shri S.C Khajuriya

Visit by shri S.C. Khajuriya (EO) Jammu Region

during the academic inspection on 03 September 2009

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Download & Read E-Book

1. India_2009.pdf (Read & download)

2. General knowledge Book.pdf (Read & download)

It is Very useful book for competition

3 . GK-BOOK-2 .pdf (Read & Download)

4. Chanakya-Niti.pdf (Read & download)

5. Pratiyogita-Darpan-Apr09

6.  GK Today

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Our Libary

Library of kendriya Vidyalaya Baramulla is one of the richest among KV libraries in India .It was started in 1985.We have a collection of Three thousand four hundred books .We subscribe forty three titles of periodicals and Five news papers.Class libraries are working in classes one to second. Automation of thelibrary is in progress and every effort is made to satisfy the needs of the users.Under the active guidence 0f our principal Mr B S Gharooo the library has become a modern and reader friendly information and reference centre.

New Books Arrival For Children:-


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Jungle Book

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Books reviews from publisher

books reviews

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Independence day

Independence day


KV Baramulla Library

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RSS Article of The Week

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RSS Books News,Rviews and Authors Interviews

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Periodicals Articles Alert

Bachhon ko Nishulk Aur Anivaarya Shiksha Ka adhikaar Adhiniyam 2009, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1823-1825 ; E-Kachara Prabandhan: Ek Chunauti Aur Upaye, Pratiyogita Darpan,May2010,P.1832-1834; Vitamin Truths & lies,Reader Digest,May2010,P.52-56; Surface Area and Volume, Education Trend,May210,P.65 ; Metals and Non Metals, Education Trend,May210,P.77; The rise of Nationalism in Europe, Education Trend,May210,P.91; Linear Equations in two variables, Education Today,May2010,P.5-15,Federalism, Sectors of Indian Economy and Water Resources Education Today,May2010,P.16-29 ; Acids, Bases and Salts, Education Today,May2010,P.30; Prehistoric Creatures,Tell Me Why,May2010; Disappearing Herbs,Out Look,May24,2010,P.56

Periodicals Arrival in the Library