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Tamil Nadu

Particulars Description
Area 1,30,058 sq. km
Population 62,405,679
Capital Chennai
Principal Languages Tamil

History and Geography

The State of Tamil Nadu has a hoary antiquity. Though early sangam classics throw historical references, we pass to recorded history only from the Pallavas.

The southern states of India were under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century A.D. They were the originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita, in whose reign the later Cholas under Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the end of the 11th century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountcy over South India.

Muslims gradually strengthened their position, which led to the establishment of the Bahamani Sultanate, by the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, the Vijayanagar Kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India, and at the close of the century, Vijayanagar became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans.

Even during the period of the tumultuous confusion that followed the battle of Talikota, European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’. East India Company, which had established its factory at Masulipatnam (now in Andhra Pradesh) in 1611, gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers. Tamil Nadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency, which covered the bulk of the southern peninsula in 1901. The composite Madras State was later reorganised, and the present Tamil Nadu was formed.

Tamil Nadu is bounded on north by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, on the west by Kerala, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the south by the Indian Ocean.


Agriculture is the major occupation in Tamilnadu. The total cultivated area in the State was 56.10 million hectares in 2007-08. The principal food crops include paddy, millets and pulses. Commercial crops include sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, coconut, cashew, chillies, gingelly and groundnut. Plantation crops are tea, coffee, cardamom and rubber. Major forest produces are timber, sandalwood, pulp wood and fuel wood. Tamilnadu occupies a premier position in the production and extensive application of bio-fertilizers. Efforts are on to improve farming technologies so as to increase yields in the low rainfall areas of the State. Annual food grains production in the year 2007-08 was 100.35 lakh mt.

Industry and Minerals

Major Industries in the State are cotton, heavy commercial vehicles, auto components, railway coaches, power pumps, leather tanning industries, cement, sugar, paper, automobiles and safety matches.

Knowledge based industries like I.T. and Biotechnology have become the thrust area in the industrial scene in Tamilnadu. TIDEL, a software technology park, has been established in Tharamani, Chennai. The Software export from the State which was Rs. 20,700 crores in 2006-07 is expected to cross Rs. 25,000 crores in 2007-08. Top I.T. and Telecom companies such as Nokia, Motorola, Foxcon, Flextronic and Dell have commenced production.

Global auto majors Hyundai Motors, Ford, Hindustan Motors and Mitsubishi have commenced production plants. Ashok Leyland and TAFE have set up expansion plants in Chennai.

Main mineral wealth of the state is granite, lignite and limestone. The state is an important exporter of tanned skin and leather goods, yarn, tea, coffee, spices, engineering goods, tobacco, handicrafts and black granite. Tamil Nadu contributes to 60 per cent of the tannery industry in India.


Important irrigation schemes and modernisation of existing Periyar Vaigai System, Palar Basin System and Parambikulam-Aliyar System besides the minor system in Vellar, Pennayar, Araniyar Amaravathi, Chithar basins totaling, an extent of six lakh acres of existing ayacut in Tamil Nadu have been benefited by implementing the ‘System Improvement and Farmers Turnover Projects’ executed with assistance from World Bank. The major irrigation system covering one-third of irrigated extent in Tamil Nadu, namely tank irrigation system has been given due regard for development under WRCP, and 620 tanks maintained by Public Works Department falling under Palar, Vaigai, and Tamaraparani Basins have been taken up for rehabilitation and improvement. The State has become the pioneer State to implement the system of ‘River basin management’ by an individual body consisting of officials and farmers besides various representatives of the basin. To start with, Basin Management Boards have been formed for Palar and Tamaraparani basins.


The total installed capacity for electricity in the State is 8,249 MW. The installed capacity of State Sector is 5,288 MW, and that of Private Sector is 1,058 MW. Apart from this, 1,903 MW is available as share from Central Sector.


Roads: The length of roads network in Tamil Nadu is 1, 93,918 km.

Railways: The total length of railways is 4,181 km, the main junctions being Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli.

Aviation: Chennai being the international airport in the southern region is the main centre of airline routes. Besides, there are airports at Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem.

Ports: Major ports in the State are Chennai and Tuticorin. There are seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam.


Bharatnatyam Dance

Pongal is the harvest festival celebrated by the farmers in January to worship the sun, the earth and the cattle as thanks giving for a bounteous harvest. Pongal festival is followed by the Jallikattu-Bull fight, in some parts of southern Tamil Nadu. Alanganallur in Tamil Nadu is internationally famous for Jallikattu – Bull fight. Chithirai festival, Madurai brings a spectacular re-enactment of the marriage of the Pandiyan princess Meenakshi to Lord Sundareswarar. Adipperukku is a festival celebrated on the 18th day of Tamil month, Adi, on the banks of rivers. It marks the commencement of new farming operations. Dance Festival, Mamallapuram, which is set before an open air stage, created 13 centuries ago the incredible monolithic rock sculptures of the Pallavas, next to the sea in this ancient city of Mamallapuram. Bharatha Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, and Odissi are some dance forms presented by the very best exponents of the art besides folk dances. At the Natyanjali Dance Festival, the temple city of Chidambaram pays special tribute to Lord Nataraja the ‘Cosmic Dancer’.

Mahamagam Festival is a holy festival that brings pilgrims to Kumbakonam once in 12 years – the temple city that gets its name from Kumbha – the divine pot. The summer festival is held every year in the ‘Queen of Hill Stations’, the evergreen Ooty, the exquisite Kodaikkanal or the salubrious heights of Yercaud. Kanthuri Festival is a truly secular festival, where devotees flock to the shrine of saint Quadirwali. One of the descendants of the Saint is chosen as a Peer or spiritual leader, and is honoured with offerings. On the tenth day of the festival, the Saint’s tomb is anointed with sandalwood, and later the holy sandal paste is distributed to everyone. Wondrous legends surround the church, the most famous being that of the ship wrecked Portuguese sailors, who in the 16th century, vowed to build a great shrine for the Virgin Mary, for saving their lives in a terrible storm. The Velankanni festival attracts thousands, clad in orange robes to the sacred spot where the ship landed. Equally famous are the Virgin Mary’s miraculous healing powers, earning for the church the name ‘Lourdes of the East’.

The Navarathiri Festival, literally means the festival of ‘nine nights’, taking unique and different forms in different states of India, all to propitiate the goddess Sakthi, for power, wealth and knowledge. Rows of glittering earthen lamps outside every home and joyous burst of fire crackers mark Tamil Nadu’s Festival of lights, Karthigai Deepam. In December, Chennai celebrates her priceless heritage of carnatic music and dance at its Music Festival to present a galaxy of star artistes, old and new.

Tourist Centres

Meenakshi Temple, Madurai

Chennai, Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam, Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvannamalai, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tirunelveli, Kanniyakumari, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, Kazhugumalai (monument centres), Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Suruli (water-falls), Ooty (Udhagamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Elagiri Kolli Hills (hill stations), Guindy (Chennai), Mudumalai, Annamalai, Mundanthurai, Kalakad (wild life sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries), Arignar Anna Zoological Park, near Chennai, are some of the places of tourist interest.

Source: India 2010 – A Reference Annual


Particulars Description
Area 1,91,791 sq. km
Population 52,850,562
Capital Bangalore

History and Geography

Karnataka has a recorded history of more than 2,000 years. Apart from its subjection to the rule of Nandas, Mauryas and the Satavahanas, Karnataka came to have indigenous dynasties like the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas from the middle of the 4th century AD. The world renowned Gomateshwara monolith at Sharavanabelagola was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya. The Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) reigned over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kaveri from the days of Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD) who even defeated the mighty Harshavardhana of Kanauj. This dynasty created fine, everlasting and the most beautiful monuments at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, both structural and rock cut. Aihole has been one of the cradles of temple architecture in the country.

The Rashtrakutas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed who succeeded them heaped tributes on the rulers of Kanauj successively in the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj’. Kannada literature developed during this period. Outstanding Jain scholars of India lived in their court. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 AD to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu built exquisite temples, encouraged literature and various fine arts. Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara) lived at Kalyana. The great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana. Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1646) patronised and fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature in Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. Overseas trade flourished.

The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (Tobacco, Maize, Chillies, Groundnut, potato, etc). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under British rule. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was ushered in. The urban middle-class emerged.

Mysore dynasty initiated and helped industrialisation and cultural growth. Freedom Movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After Independence, the Mysore State was created in 1953, wherein all the Kannada dominant areas under different dispensations were unified and the enlarged Mysore state carved in 1956 and was renamed Karnataka in 1973.

Karnataka State is situated between 11031′ and 18014′ north latitudes and 74012′ and 78010′

Forestry and Wildlife

The Forest department manages about 20.15% of the geographical area of the State. Forests have been classified as reserved forests, protected forests, unclassified forests, Villages forests, and private forests. There are 5 National Parks and 23 Wildlife sanctuaries. To overcome shortage of fuel wood, fodder and timber, degraded forests and waste lands are being developed. Emphasis is also being laid on the conservation, protection and development of the fragile eco-system of the Western Ghats. Several Wildlife protection schemes such as Project Tiger and Project Elephant are being implemented with the Central assistance. The concept of Joint Forest Planning and Management applied to the 2 externally aided projects viz., DFID and JBIS has resulted in village forest planning and management through establishment of Village Forest Committees. Japan Bank for International Cooperation has approved a new scheme called Karnataka Sustainable Forest Management and Bio-diversity project and it is being implemented from 2005-06 to 2012-13 throughout Karnataka.


The State has 66% rural population and 55.60 per cent of workers are agricultural labourers. The State has 60% (114 lakh ha) cultivable land and 72% of the cultivable area is rainfed; only 28% is under irrigation. The state has 10 Agro climatic Zones. The Red soil constitutes major soil type, followed by Black soil. The net sown area of the state constituted 51.7% of the total land. During 2007-08, food grain production is anticipated to be 117.35 lakh metric tons against the target of 119.70 lakh metric ton.


Karnataka is one of the major milk producers and the Karnataka Milk Federation has 21 dairy processing plants with a capacity of 26.45 lakh litres a day and 42 chilling centres having 14.60 lakh litres of chilling capacity.


Horticulture crops are grown in an area of 16.80 lakhs hectares and the produces amount to 101 lakh tons. The Union Government has earmarked Rs. 171.29 crores for Karnataka under National Horticulture Mission.

Major and Medium Irrigation

28% of the cultivable land in the state is under irrigation. During 2006-07, 23.21 hectares of land was covered by major and medium irrigation and 9.93 lakh hectares was covered by minor irrigation, constituting a total of 33.14 lakh hectares of irrigated area.

Power Generation

Karnataka was the pioneer in establishing hydroelectric projects in the country. Today, Karnataka has 7222.91 Power Generation Installed capacity and 31229 Million Units of Electricity was generated in 2007-08.

Information Technology

Karnataka State continues its unassailable lead in the IT sector, recording software exports of Rs. 48,700 crores, during 2006-07. For 2007-08 upto November-07 the export was Rs. 24450 crores. It is expected to grow by 25% over previous year’s achievements. The recent report by Nasscom has recognised Manglore and Mysore among the fastest growing IT cities in the country.


Karnataka State and Bangaluru city in particular have become the largest bio-lusters in the country. During 2006-07 three projects were cleared through SLSWA with an investment of Rs. 535.50 crores. The value of Biotech exports was 215 Million US$.



Road: Total road length of Karnataka has increased from 83,749 km in 1971 to 2,15, 849 km in 2007. The Karnataka Highways Improvement Project with World Bank assistance will improve 2375 kms of road, i.e. upgradation of 900 km and rehabilitation of 1475 kms comprising state highways and major district roads at an estimated cost of Rs. 2402.51 crores. Assistance is being provided under the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund for the construction and improvement of roads and bridges in the state.

Ports: The Karnataka State has a maritime coastline of 155 nautical mile (300 kilometers) and has only one Major Port at Mangalore i.e. New Mangalore Port and studded with 10 minor ports of the State are Karwar, Belekeri, Tadri, Honnavar, Bhatkala, Kundapur, Hangarkatta, Malpe, Padubidri and Old Mangalore. Out of 10 ports Karwar is the only all weather port while the other nine are the reverine anchorage lighter age ports. All these ports have handled a total cargo of 6573 thousand tonnes in 2006-07.

Aviation: The Civil Aviation Sector has seen tremendous growth with international air passenger traffic growth of 50% and domestic air passenger growth at 44% during 2006-07. As regards cargo traffic, the State airports handled 1.66 lakh ton of freight during 2006-07, a 19% increase over the previous year.

Bangaluru International Airport: Country’s First Green Field International Airport has been set up at Devanahalli near Bangaluru at a cost of Rs. 2000 crores as a passenger and Cargo hub under Public Private Partnership and has started functioning from 28th May, 2008. This airport has put Bangalore City on global destination and offer travellers’ facilities comparable with best international standards.

The Government has also planned to develop airports at Shimoga and Gulbarga on PPP basis.


Hampi – World Heritage Site

Vidhana Soudha – Bangalore

Karnataka “One State Many Worlds” is becoming a Hub of tourist attraction of South India. The IT & BT Centre Bangaluru has received more tourists in the recent past. There is a phenomenal growth in tourist arrivals of over 40% in 2006-07 compared to 2005-06. The State is known for its Heritage monuments and Eco-Tourism destinations.

The Golden Chariot named after the famous Stone Chariot in Hampi, a world heritage site, in Southern India will travel through timeless historical heritage sites, resplendent palaces, wildlife and golden beaches. Its 7 Nights/8 Days colourful journey begins every Monday from Bangaluru and traverses through Mysore, visiting Srirangapatna, Mysore Palace, The Nagarhole National Park (Kabini) and continuing to the historical sites of Shravanabelagola, Belur – the 11th century cradle of Hoysala architecture and a world heritage site, Halebidu, Hampi and thereafter entering into the triangular heritage site of Badami, Pattadakal, Aihole and finally the Golden Beaches of Goa before ending in Banglore.

Karnataka has a blend of heritage places, thick dense forests and holy places. The new concept of ‘Home stay’ has added a new dimension to Tourism in the State. Hampi and Pattadakal have been declared as world heritage site.

New Schemes & Achievements

E-Governance: Online delivery of land records scheme which was started in the year 2000 has successfully digitised 200 lakh land records and enabled the mutation process online making the RTCs easily available in Kiosks at taluk level specially set up for the purpose. It is now decided to redevelop the existing software to upgrade it with enhanced feature and strengthened technical base. The new Bhoomi software will cover all the existing features like linking with Kaveri Programme, Banks, Courts, Phodi process and have new features like linking land acquisition cases, mutations of non-agricultural land.

In addition to this, E-Governance has implemented “Bangaluru One Programme” a multiple service centre where citizens can pay electricity bill, telephone bill etc. and avail around 25 other services under one roof. It has also developed Nemmadi programme in Karnataka by establishing 765 Nemmadi tele centres under PPP in all the Hobli Headquarters to obtain the Income, Birth and Death Certificates. Apart from this it has developed HRMS as one of its core initiatives and most common function across all Departments.

Bhagyalakshmi: With an intention to balance the male-female ratio and to provide moral support to poor families, the Government of Karnataka has introduced an innovative scheme “Bhagyalakshmi”. The benefit is limited to two girls in each BPL family. This is an umbrella programme for child development for providing financial assistance of Rs. 10,000/- which will be deposited in the name of girl child born in the BPL family and will be given at the age of 18 years along with accrued interest. During 2007-08 Rs. 132.42 crores have been released and 1.31 lakh beneficiaries have been identified. In the budget 2008-09 recently presented by the Chief Minister has raised the amount to Rs.1 lakh and 266.65 crores have been allocated.

Madilu: This is another scheme introduced to promote the institutional delivery and thereby protecting the maternal as well as the infant’s health. Under the scheme a kit consisting of requirements for the baby and mother is provided after delivery. This facility is provided to all BPL families. During 2007-08 about 1.50 lakh were benefitted. Further, the institutional deliveries have increased to 67.97% in 2007-08 compared to 63.82% in 2006-07.

Bhagyaratha: In order to provide better access and further continue education, the state government has contemplated a programme to provide bicycles to both boys and girls studying in 8th standard studying in government and grant-in-aid schools. About 1.75 lakh girls and 2.33 lakh boys belonging to BPL families have been covered under this scheme during 2007-08. This year (i.e. 2008-09) this scheme has been extended to all children studying in 8th standard in government and grant-in-aid schools. Over 7 lakh children are expected to be benefitted from this.

Andhra Pradesh

Particulars Description
Area 2,75,069 sq. km
Population 76,210,007
Capital Hyderabad
Principal Languages Telugu and Urdu

History and Geography

The earliest mention of the Andhras is said to be in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 B.C.). It indicates that the Andhras, originally an Aryan race living in north India migrated to south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans. Regular history of Andhra Desa, according to historians, begins with 236 B.C., the year of Ashoka’s death. During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties that ruled over the area in succession were the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi followed by Mir Qumruddin and his successors, known as the Nizams. Gradually, from the 17th century onwards, the British annexed territories of the Nizam and constituted the single province of Madras.

Charminar, Hyderabad

After Independence, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State came into being on 1 October 1953. With the passing of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, there was a merger of Hyderabad State and Andhra State, and consequently Andhra Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956.

Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orissa and Chhattisgarh, on the west by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by the Bay of Bengal with a coastline of 974 km.


Agriculture is the main occupation of about 62 per cent of the people in Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major food crop and staple food of the State contributing about 77 per cent of the foodgrain production. Other important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane. Forests cover 23 per cent of the State’s area. Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casurina, bamboo, softwood, etc.

The Government decided to arrange crop loans to the farmer at concessional rates of interest from the kharif season (2008) under the ‘Pavala Vaddi’ (3% rate of interest) scheme and also increased the loan amount to farmers from Rs. 23,000 crores in 2007-08 to Rs. 26,000 crores in 2008-09 to achieve the goal of increasing food grain production. Under the Centre’s Rs. 60,000 crore loan waiver scheme. 77 lakh farmers of the State benefit to the tune of Rs. 12,000 crore. The prestigious ‘Jalayagnam’ project is designed by the Government to save the farmer from the vagaries of monsoons and provide assured irrigation facility to every acre of land. Farming in Andhra Pradesh today is so encouraging and remunerative that no farmer entertains farmers’ suicides.


Important irrigation schemes implemented in the State are Vamsadhara Project Stage-I, Godavari Delta System, Yeleru Reservoir Project, Krishna Delta System, Pennar Delta System, Pennar River Canal System, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy Sagar Project, Tungabhadra Project high level canal Stage-I, Tungabhadra Project low level canal, Sriramsagar Stage-I, Nizamsagar Project, Nagarjuna Sagar Project and Rajolibanda Diversion scheme.

Andhra Pradesh is the first state to involve the farmers in the management of irrigation sources.


Important power projects in the State are: the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal power projects. The Srisailam Hydro Electric project (Right Bank) with an installed capacity of 770 MW and the Srisailam Left Bank HES capacity of 900 MW and the Nagarjunasagar complex with 960 MW are the principal sources of hydel generation. Vijayawada Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,260 MW and Kothagudem Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,200 MW are the main sources of thermal power generation. The 1,000 MW coal-based Simhadri Thermal Power station aims at supplying the entire energy generated to the State. Installed capacity of the state as on May’08 is 12,382 MW For massive capacity addition of 8860 MW, 17 new projects are programmed by APGENCO which are expected to complete within next five years.

Industry and Minerals

There are several major industries in operation around Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. They manufacture machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, fertilizers, electronic equipments, aeronautical parts, cement and cement products, chemicals, asbestos, glass and watches. Andhra Pradesh has the largest deposits of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. Other important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to the entire South India.

The State Government has been promoting the manufacturing sector in a big way by providing concessions in power tariff, allotting land and relaxing labour laws in SEZs. AP has promoted 71 SEZs of which 52 have been notified by the Government of India with an investment potential of Rs. 35,000 crore and creation of employment for 25 lakh persons.

According to RBI Report of August 2007, Andhra Pradesh ranked second among States in the Country in attracting investments of Rs. 25,173 crore in 2006-07. The Confederation of Indian Industry lauded Andhra Pradesh as the Best Performing State in the manufacturing sector.

Information Technology

Andhra Pradesh has been forging ahead in the sphere of Information Technology. It is ahead of other states in exploiting the opportunities to the hilt. The State Government has introduced many schemes to utilize the maximum number of skilled human resources in the I.T. Sector. During 2007-08 I.T. exports crossed Rs. 26,000 crores.

The Government is making efforts to spread I.T. to Tier II cities like Warangal, Tirupathi, Kakinada, Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Guntur and Kadapa. As a result, job opportunities in the I.T. sector in Tier II cities have improved. The IIT coming up in Medak district will become operational from the coming academic year. Further, the Government succeeded in persuading BITS Pilani to open a campus in Hyderabad which will become operational from the coming academic year.

The Government is according top priority to I.T. development by creating the requisite infrastructure and setting up of 3 Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Idupulapaya in Kadapa District, Nuzvid in Krishna District and Basara in Adilabad District) under Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies to turn out qualified personnel.


Roads: National Highways passing through Andhra Pradesh constitute 4,647 km. There are 63,863 km of state roads including 10,412 km of State highways and 1,24,142 km of Panchayati Raj roads in the State as on March 2008.

Railways: Of the railways route covering 5,107 km in Andhra Pradesh, 4,633 km is broad-gauge, 437 km is metre-gauge and 37 km is narrow gauge.

Aviation: Important airports in the State are located at Hyderabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam. International flights are operated from Hyderabad.

Ports: Visakhapatnam is a major port. There are minor ports in the State. Andhra Pradesh has emerged as the country’s no. 2 in the share of Cargo handling and its capacity has gone up.

Tourist Centres

Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad

Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Yadagirigutta, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakonda and Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala-Tirupathi, Sri Mallikarjunaswamy Temple at Srisailam, Kanaka Durga Temple at Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple at Annavaram, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam, Sri Sita Rama Temple at Bhadrachalam, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Nelapattu, etc., are the major tourist attractions in Andhra Pradesh. Thirty-three life-size statues of eminent Telugu personalities of the State were erected on Tankbund of Hussainsagar lake in Hyderabad. A giant statue of Lord Buddha of a height of about 60 feet has been erected on the Gibraltar rock in the Hussainsagar lake, which separates Hyderabad and Secunderabad cities.


Particulars Description
Area 38,863 sq. km
Population 31,841,374
Capital Thiruvananthapuram
Principal Languages Malayalam

Kerala: At a Glance

Hedged in between the Western Ghats with its highest peaks of Anamudi and Agasthyarkoodam on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west and blessed by North-East (October – November) and South-West (June – August) monsoon seasons this evergreen land of Kerala on the South-Western part of the Indian peninsula, with mountains, hills valleys and lakes, deserves to be praised with the epithet ‘God’s own Country’ which the famous English Poet Dylan Thomas used to eulogise the Wales Countryside. The geographical data of Kerala is North Latitude between 8018′ and 12048′ East longitude between 74052′ and 77022′.

A Living Heritage

The long interconnected lakes having rich wealth of estuarine fishes, mussels and clams and with coconut groves and occasional paddy fields on either side constitute National Water way III of India stretching from Thiruvananthapuram in the south to the northern most districts. This ancient conduit to take merchandise by heavy boats to the ports of Muziris (Present Kodungalloor) Aleppo (Present Alappuzha) Ayi (Present Vizhinjam) Kollam and Beypore thronged first by Romans and afterwards by Chinese, Syrians, Arabs and in recent centuries by Europeans for trade is now the golden Pathway of tourists and luxury boats. A few of the interconnected lagoons witness some of the most spirited boat races in the world such as the Nehru Trophy, Uthruttathi and Aranmula boat races. The total length of the waterways is 1687 Kms. The famous beaches of Kovalam Varkala, Cherayi, Muzhuppilangadu and Bekal brace up nearer the National Waterway III though, otherwise well-connected with the international airports of Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode and also the newly coming up Kannur airport. N.H.47 traverses the state from the south end to Palakkad for Bangalore and N.H.17 from Kochi to Mangalore for Mumbai. Besides them there are state highways such as the M.C. Road, Kochi-Madurai, Thiruvananthapuram – Thenkasi, Kozhikode-Mysore, Vadakara – Virajpettah – Bangalore roads. With 1, 54, 679 Kms road length Kerala occupies top-notch position in road connectivity.

Contribution to Bharat Varsha

Viewing from the historical angle one would find that Kerala’s contribution to Indian nationhood was outstanding. ‘Bharat Varsha’ has always been a concept of the Intellectual and emotional unity of life in the Indian sub continent even when it was under the tutelage of opposing rulers. When the peninsula was plunged into intellectual vacuum and darkness with the eclipse of Jainism and Buddhism Sree Sankaracharya emerged from the village of Kalady near Kochi from Kerala and established intellectual centres or mutts at the far corners of Bharat Varsha and brought about that intellectual unity. The serious confrontations with foreign forces on the shores of Kerala resulted in deeper interactions producing tolerance of the neighbour’s faith. At the dawn of the twentieth century Sree Narayana Guru reinforced this secular ethos of Kerala by reinterpreting the true spirit and authority of the Hindu scriptures. The biggest singular contribution of Kerala to Bharat Varsha is this secular ethos.

Kerala Model of Development

Kerala has been hailed as a model of development for having achieved a status fulfilling all the parameters of social well-being comparable to those of the developed countries of the world. The state achieved total literacy almost two decades back. It has the lowest infant mortality rate and life expectancy is 71 years for both male and female, which is the highest in the country. Maternal mortality rate is also the lowest. The state has also the lowest birth rate. This spectacular achievement in spite of having only a moderate per capita income has led economists to look upon Kerala as an economic miracle. Behind these achievements several factors are discernible such as the spread of education among all sections of the population as Dr. Amarthya Sen so forcefully emphasised, a large non-resident population and their remittances back home, successful cultivation of commercial crops especially rubber and spices, spread of cooperative movement, the services of social organisations in education and healthcare and fairly high wages for labourers. Kerala has been the first state to achieve democratic revolution, and no wonder, she heralded the phenomenon of bringing a communist government to power through ballot in world history.


Kerala has also been the first state in the country to implement land reforms. The State is giving impetus to the decentralised system of development carried out through assemblages of families in every locale, called Kudumbasree under the Grama Panchayat. Kerala’s system of decentralised development has been looked upon as a model by other states and many foreign countries. Incidentally Kerala is the only state with hospital facility in every village Kerala also enjoys the highest communication infrastructure in the country.

Economy Looks Forward

Focusing on economic development in the state one would find that the tertiary or the service sector has performed exceptionally and consistently well over the years of the state. Development on the industrial sector has been very little satisfactory owing to a variety of reasons but chiefly the unavailability of land at affordable prices for the purpose. The state government is making all out efforts to make rapid strides in IT industry in the state, the results of which are visible in the increased revenue from export of IT products. But Kerala’s forte is in tourism industry which has been growing at a fast rate. Hill stations life Vagamon, Munnar, Thekkady and Wayanad are attracting more and more tourists besides the beaches and backwaters. Incidentally, Kerala has the highest thorium deposit in the world. Once the country achieves the technology of laser isotope separation of thorium, this mineral will fetch for the country an economic bonanza equal to that of oil in the gulf countries or even bigger than that production.

Increased Food Crop Production

On the agricultural front, Kerala’s food crop is not sufficient for her needs. Paddy cultivation has been steadily losing in extent and yield. The production has come down from 13 lakh tonnes to 6.29 lakh tonnes over the years. The state is making concerted efforts to increase the extent by farming paddy on fallow lands and promoting better agricultural practices. The results are extremely encouraging. Kerala is the largest producer of natural rubber in the country and it is also the biggest producer of spices like pepper, cardamom, nutmeg, cinnamon etc.

Future with Sea-borne Commerce

The long coastline of Kerala with an array of minor ports have promoted the development of fishery sector as an important component of Kerala’s economy and source of employment. Kochi Port and Cochin shipyard have made Kochi the hub of commercial activity. The transshipment terminal being built at Vallarpadom Under the Central Government will further increase commerce in the southern region in a few years. If and when the deep sea mother port at Vizhinjam proposed by the State Government becomes a reality Kerala is poised to become the commercial hub of entire South Asia.

* Exclusively prepared content for NPI by CSP Kerala

Source: IT Department, Government of Kerala

States and Union Territories

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 7 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc. This section introduces you to the various States/UTs in the Country and urges you to explore their magnificent uniqueness…


  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Assam
  • Bihar
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Goa
  • Gujarat
  • Haryana
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Jammu and Kashmir
  • Jharkhand
  • Karnataka
  • Kerala
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Manipur
  • Meghalaya
  • Mizoram
  • Nagaland
  • Orissa
  • Punjab
  • Rajasthan
  • Sikkim
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Tripura
  • Uttarakhand
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • West Bengal

Union Territories

  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Chandigarh
  • The Government of NCT of Delhi
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  • Daman and Diu
  • Lakshadweep

Source: National Portal Content Management Team Reviewed on: 28-1-2010

Filed under: Know About Indian States, , , , , , , ,

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